Were siege weapons used on medieval ships?

Zeitbilder 5/6, textbook

The printed paper gave all those who learned to read and write new educational opportunities (including those with poor eyesight, as glasses had been around since the end of the 13th century). It enabled political, cultural and religious ideas to be spread quickly and across borders (eg the leaflet as a new means of propaganda) and thus accelerated communication at an unprecedented speed. In the present, the use of the computer has revolutionized our communication system. Compare the introduction of the computer with Gutenberg's invention: What differences can be identified, what dangers, what advantages can arise from them? Europe's lead in weapons technology Up to the beginning of modern times, the Europeans also became world leaders in the “art” of killing and destroying. As early as the 12th century, they took over a huge slingshot from the Chinese, which was successfully used as a siege weapon. Gunpowder also probably came from distant China and was tried out in Cologne as early as the middle of the 13th century. In the 14th century there were cannons and soon afterwards the stone balls were replaced by cast iron balls. Handguns, too, have been continuously developed since the 14th century and repeatedly tested in the numerous European wars. The artist engineer Leonardo da Vinci drew up various plans for new military equipment in the service of several princes: a crossbow machine gun, automatic fire rifles, multi-barreled artillery, rockets, armored cars, etc. The chemical industry (for the manufacture of gunpowder) experienced this through this an upswing as great as the metal industry (through cannon construction) and the gunsmithing trade. The Europeans also made decisive progress in the maritime sector. With the help of the compass, also a Chinese invention, better ship maps were soon created that made travel on the open sea much easier. In shipbuilding, the agile, three-masted “caravel” was the first time a ship suitable for the high seas was built and equipped with cannons. With that, all the prerequisites for the coming conquest of the world were fulfilled. Weapons production and development are an important economic sector around the world today, employing a large number of workers. What are the moral problems associated with it? Knowledge of the shape of the earth is increasing Most people's knowledge of the earth was very sparse at first. Even the information provided by the historians hardly pointed beyond the immediate vicinity. But the scholars in the Middle Ages were familiar with the ancient idea of ​​the shape of the earth as a sphere. But many of them thought of the inhabited area as a small island, washed by a huge ocean. That is why in the Enlightenment the scholars of the “dark” (= ignorant) Middle Ages were wrongly attributed to having understood the earth as a disk. However, they regarded the earth as the center of the universe (see p. 115). They obtained their knowledge mainly from ancient sources. They learned descriptions of the world through the Arabs, e. B. of Ptolemy from Alexandria (approx. 83–161). He had already divided his globe into 360 degrees of latitude and longitude, but calculated the circumference of the earth to be far too short - an error with consequences for later explorers (e.g. Columbus). Despite all the mistakes, this work was nevertheless superior to the other maps, which mostly showed Jerusalem as the center of the world. The voyages of discovery proved Ptolemy's mistakes. Now scholars made their own, better maps and also "potatoes" (= globes). Questions and assignments 1. Summarize the essential technical innovations and scientific findings at the beginning of modern times.  Print with moveable letters: print shop (copper engraving by Philipp Galle, 1537–1612, after a drawing by Jan von der Straet, 1523–1605).  The terrestrial globe by the Nuremberg cosmographer Martin Behaim was created in 1492 and is considered the oldest representation of the earth as a sphere. Europe, Africa and Asia are designed according to Marco Polo's travelogue and the Portuguese voyages of discovery. America is not listed.  Leonardo da Vinci, armored car. In addition to cannons and other war machines, Leonardo also designed new methods of defense. 117 The early modern era 4 For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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