What is meant by Billi in Hindi

Language description Hindi (ह न द)


1 Ashwini Kakodkar-Behera (March 2017) Language description Hindi (ह न द) 1 Introduction Hindi is one of 22 officially recognized languages ​​in India and since then has been the official language of all Indian states alongside English. Hindi is also the national language of nine states, namely Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand as well as the Union Territory of Delhi and thus the most widely spoken language in India. An estimated 600 million people in India speak Hindi, around 370 million of them as their mother tongue. Among the most widely spoken languages ​​in the world, Hindi is second only to Chinese. In addition to India, it is spoken by large numbers of people in Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Great Britain, Guyana, Suriname, Uganda, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States. Originally, Hindi consisted mainly of words taken from Sanskrit. As a result of the Islamic influence through the rule of the Muslim sultanates (century) and the also Muslim Grand Mughals (century), many words of Persian and Arabic origin [e.g. B. औरत (aurat) = woman; ब लक ल (bilkul) = absolute; सरक र (sarkār) = government; बकत (kitāb) = book; त र ख (tāriekh) = date; ब र ग (firangie) = foreigner etc.] into the spoken language. Contemporary Hindi is very closely related to Urdu, the official language of Pakistan, which also contains numerous words from Persian and Arabic. Due to British and Portuguese colonial rule in the 18th and 19th centuries, many words from English are also used in Hindi [e.g. B. अफ सर (afsar)

2 अस पत ल (aspatāl)

3 म जममन भ ष -म प रव ण ह ल क न Mẽ Dscherman Bhāschā -mẽ pravin Hũ lekin personal pronouns in the nominative, 1st person, singular adjective verb conjunction वह म र हम श नह स नत ह wah Meri hamescha Nahĩ sunti hai Noun postposition personal pronoun nominative, 3rd person in possessive pronoun adverb negation particle verb 3

4 2 Sounds and letters in Hindi Hindi is written in the Devanagari script (also Dewanagari), which does not distinguish between upper and lower case letters. The Hindi alphabet consists of 11 vowel and 33 consonant letters. The vowels letter in Hindi letter (s) in German pronunciation (Lautwert) अ e (Schwa-Laut as in Rose) / ə / अजन म (Arjun) आ A, a / a: / आल (Ālok) इ I, i / ɪ / इर वत (Iravati) ई I, i / i: / ईश (Isha) उ U, u / ʊ / उदय (Uday) ऊ U, u / u: / ऊव (Urvi) Example ऋषष (Rischi) ऋ / ŕ / (a syllabic vibrant; see explanation below) ए E, e / e: / ए लव य (Eklavya) ऐ Ä, ä / æ / ऐश वय म (Aishwarya) ओ O, o / o: / ओजस (Ojas) औ O, o / ɔ: / औच त य (Auchitya) (long open o such as Engl. Morning) 4

5 The original sound value of the vowel ऋ / ŕ / has been lost over time. In contemporary language it is pronounced like the syllable ri; However, this only occurs in Sanskrit words. Articulation location The Hindi vowel inventory contains ten sounds, which differ in the position of the lips (unrounded rounded) and the tongue height (high, medium high, low) and the articulation location (front central back). The following simplified vowel table should clarify this. Tongue height Unrounded Rounded Front central Back high इ [ɪ] ऊ [u:] ई [i:] उ [ʊ] medium high ए [e] ओ [o:] ऐ [ai] औ [ɔ:] deep अ [ə] आ [a:] The sound अ [ə] in Hindi can only be compared with the Schwa sound in German to a limited extent. In German, the Schwa sound occurs in the middle of a syllable (e.g. le-sen) or at the end of a syllable (e.g. Ro-se). However, it cannot appear at the beginning of a syllable. In Hindi, on the other hand, the sound अ can also appear at the beginning of a syllable. In the middle or at the end of the syllable, however, it is only used in combination with a consonant. In addition, the sound अ is formed deeper in the mouth than the Schwa sound. In Hindi, there is not a long and short variant of every vowel. A distinction is made between long and short i (like German game / bite) and long and short u (like German call / river), but a short a (like German man) or short o (like German sun) there is not any. 5

6 The diphthong eu / äu (like German today / skin) and the umlauts ö and ü do not occur in Hindi either. The consonant letter in Hindi letter (n) in German pronunciation (sound value) Example क K, k / k / कमल (Kamal) / ख --- (K / k, aspirated) / kʰ / खश (Khushi) ग G, g / g / ग त (Geet) घ --- (G / g, aspirated) / gʰ / घनश य म (Ghanshyām) ङ ng (as in thing; singing) / ƞ / 3 (---) च Tsch, tsch / tʃ / चद न (Chāndni) 2 (as in bye) छ --- (Tsch / Tsch, aspirated) / tʃʰ / छषव (Chhavi) ज Dsch, dsch (as in jungle) / ʤ / जय (Jay) झ - - (Dsch / dsch, aspirated) / ʤʰ / झरन (Jharnā) ञ Gn, gn (only in / ɲ / ट foreign words like Ṭ, gnocchi ṭ (emphasized) 5 / ṭ / (---) 4 ट क य ( Ṭakiya) 6 8 2 All consonants with the symbol ʰ are pronounced aspirated, including ख / kʰ /, घ / gʰ /, छ / tʃʰ /, झ / ʤʰ /, ठ / ṭʰ /, ढ / ḍʰ /, थ / tʰ / and ध / dʰ /. 3 The nasal consonants ङ / ŋ / and ञ (ᶯ) occur in Hindi only together with a consonant or another vowel and are indicated by the diacritical mark or above the preceding consonant or vowel Example: ङ (ŋ) ड (ḍankā) = kettledrum; ञ (ɲ) ग ज (gandhscā) = k ahl; आ ल (āntschal) = hem of a sari. 4 See footnote 4 5 The subsection indicates the retroflex pronunciation. In Hindi, all retroflexes are pronounced emphatically. 6 A family name. 6th

7A family name. A family name. 7th

8 Dentals (place of articulation: on the upper teeth) and bilabials (place of articulation: with the two lips). The last sound in each group is a nasal sound. The consonant groups voiceless voiced unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated nasal Velar (plosive) क / k / ख / kʰ / ग / g / घ / gʰ / ङ / ŋ / Palatal (affricates) च / tʃ / छ / tʃʰ / ज / ʤ / झ / ʤʰ / ञ / ᶯ / Retroflex (postalveolar plosive) ट / ṭ / ठ / ṭʰ / ड / ḍ / ढ / ḍʰ / ण / ɳ / Dental (plosive) त / t / थ / tʰ / द / d / ध / dʰ / न / n / Bilabial (plosive) प / p / फ / pʰ / ब / b / भ / bʰ / म / m / Phonetically speaking, it would not be correct to use the German sounds d and द with the German t and d equate. When the sounds त and द are formed, the tip of the tongue is briefly derived from the 8th

9 Mouth stretched, and these sounds are therefore formed much further in front of the mouth compared to the sounds t and d in German. The retroflexes do not occur in German. The aspirated sounds in Hindi shown above are also not present in German. On the other hand, unlike in German, the sounds k, t and p are not aspirated in Hindi. The Ich-Laut [ç] does not appear in Hindi and is often pronounced as sch [ʃ] by learners of German with Hindi as their mother tongue. Native Hindi speakers also have difficulties with the German . They often tend to roll the . In addition, in Hindi there is no vocalization of the sound / r / as in the word we. Hindi does not have any hardening of the final voices, i.e. H. that a voiced consonant at the end of a syllable (final) is pronounced voiceless, for example Rad (d t), Grab (b p), Tag (g k), good (v f). In Hindi there is no such change between voiced and unvoiced consonants in the final. In contrast to German, the Hindi spelling is phonetic. There is a 1: 1 relationship between sound and characters. Each letter or diacritical mark is pronounced exactly as it is written. Hindi also does not have any expansion letters (like Dt. H in the word Wahl). Hindi also contains five other consonants that appear in loanwords from Persian or English. The following table shows these: Sound type consonant Example of voiceless uvular plosive क / q / म क दम (muqadmā) = court case इत त फ क (ittefāq) = random unvoiced glottal fricative ख / x / ब ख र (bukhār) = fever ख स (khās) = particularly voiced uvular fricative ग / ɣ / ग र ब (garib) = poor ग लत (galti) = error 9

10 voiced alveolar fricative ज / z / मज (mazā) = fun जहर (zeher) = poison फ / f / voiceless labiodental स फ (sāf) = clean fricative फ रवर (farwari) = February syllable formation The Devanagari script is one of the syllabary scripts 10. The vowel letters stand independently only at the beginning of the word. Except अ, which is already contained in every consonant, all vowels appear as diacritical marks in combination with a consonant to form a syllable. Where the diacritic is positioned depends on the vowel. It is written above or below the consonant or to the left or right of it. Vowel अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ए ऐ ओ औ Sound values ​​in / ə / / a: / / ɪ / / i: / / ʊ / / u: / / ŕ / / e: / / ɛ / / o: / / ɔ / - German diacritical mark The spelling of vowels together with consonants is shown below using the consonant (ka) as an example: 10 In a syllabary, a character stands for a syllable, usually a consonant-vowel pair, and not only for one sound, as is the case with alphabetic scripts. 10

11 Diacritical mark - consonant- vowel- क combination (ka) (kā) (ki) (kie) (ku) (kū) ​​(kŕ) (ke) (kai) (kō) (kau / ko) Deviate from this rule only the vowels उ and ऊ after the consonant र (r), with which they are written as follows: र (ru), र (rū). All vowels can be nasalized. The sign or [called अन das सस (Anunāsik)] is used for nasal vowels. This is set using the vowel mark. Syllable structure The syllable structure in Hindi largely follows the principle (consonant) -Vowel- (consonant) (K) -V- (K). Other syllables such as VK, KVV or KKVK are also possible. Syllable structure in Hindi V आ (ā) = come KV म (mã) = mother VK अब (from) = now KVK ड (ḍāk) = post VKK अ त (ant) = end KKV क य (kyā) = what KKVK ब य ह (byāh) = wedding KVKK ब द (band) = closed syllable 11

12 loan words from Sanskrit, which are used more in the upscale language style, have an even more complex syllable structure, as can be seen in the following table: Syllable structure in loan words from Sanskrit VKKK अस र (astr) = rocket KKKV स र (stri) = Woman KKVK श ल (schlōk) = verse KKVKK स पशम (sparsch) = touch KVKKK श स र (schāstr) = science The syllable structure in German KKKVKKKKK osoab A st re ot P found S trumpf sch impfst syllable 12

13 Just as in German, in Hindi consonant clusters occur both at the beginning and at the end of the syllable, i.e. at both syllable edges, and up to three consonants can appear one after the other. Consonant clusters are not uncommon in Hindi and are just as complex as in German. Consonant clusters in Hindi look like this: Consonant clusters in Hindi KKKVKKK प य र (pyār) = love - py ā R द स त (dōst) = friend d ō S t - स पशम (sparsch) = touch - spa R sch / ʃ / - स र (stri) = woman stri वस र (vastr) = clothing va S t R Questions 1) In Hindi there are 11 vowels and 33 consonants. Each consonant can be combined with one of the 11 vowels, so that each consonant-vowel combination creates its own sign (grapheme). How many graphemes does a Hindi learner have to learn? 3 Morphology (theory of forms) of Hindi Inflection and agglutination German, Spanish and Greek are so-called inflected languages ​​in which word stems are changed in order to express grammatical categories. Turkish, on the other hand, is an agglutinating language in which meaningful endings are appended to content words, which can result in long words. Hindi is a mixture of these language types. In Hindi, both morphemic processes can be recognized in most parts of speech such as nouns, pronouns, verbs. To the number (singular or plural), the gender 13

14 (masculine or feminine) and the tense (present, past, future, etc.), the root of the word is inflected, but the case (nominative, accusative, dative, etc.) is usually identified by one or more suffixes. The noun in Hindi In contrast to German, Hindi only has two genera: masculine and feminine. In living beings, the natural gender usually corresponds to the grammatical one, but objects also have a grammatical gender and are classified as male or female. This becomes clear from the following examples. Example meaning gender in Hindi (gramm.Gender) Sex (natural gender) लड (laḍkā) boy masculine male लड (laḍki) girl feminine female बबल ल (billā) tomcat masculine male बबल ल (billi) cat feminine female इ स न (insān) human masculine female / male खखड ( khiḍki) window feminine no natural दरव ज door masculine no natural क त ब (kitāb) book masculine no natural दव (dawā) drug feminine no natural gender As a rule, feminine nouns in Hindi end with the vowel / i: /, e.g. B. खखड (khiḍki = window), the masculine nouns end in the vowel (ā (, e.g. दरव ज (darvāzā = door), or on a consonant like इ स न (insān = human). But it is not It is always possible to recognize the gender of a noun by the ending, because these rules have many exceptions, as the following examples show: 14

15 Masculine: प न (pāni) = water, ह थ (hāthi) = elephant, न त (nāti) = grandchildren Feminine: दव (dawā) = medicine, भ ष (bhāschā) = language, स स (sãs) = breath These examples also illustrate the fact that the grammatical gender of a word in Hindi does not always match that of its German equivalent. For example: स स (sãs) Femininum = the breath; दरव ज (darvājā) masculine = the door, प न (pāni) masculine = the water [Hindi has no neuter]. Formation of the female counterpart to male nouns: The female counterpart to male nouns can be formed with the following endings: (-ie), इय (-ijā), न (-ni), इन (-in), आइन (-āin) and आन (-āni) male female ब ट (beṭā) = son ब ट (beti) = daughter ह (chūhā) = male mouse ह य (tschuhijā) = female mouse श र (scher) = tiger / lion श रन (scherni) = Tigress / lioness न ई (nāi) = hairdresser न इन (nāin) = the wife of a hairdresser गर (gurū) = teacher गर आइन (guruāin) = the wife of a teacher द वर (dewar) = brother-in-law द वर न (dewrāni) = Sister-in-law the wife of the younger brother of the husband of the younger brother of the husband 15

16 Plural formation in Hindi In contrast to German, the plural formation in Hindi is fairly regular. The formation of the plural depends on three factors, namely the ending, gender and case of the noun. With a few exceptions, the following rules apply to the formation of the plural: i) For masculine nouns that end in (ā), the vowel change [(ā) (e)] is found in the nominative or accusative case, and the vowel change [(ā) in the dative or genitive case ) ओ (ȭ)] and in the vocative the vowel change [(ā) (ō)] instead. Singular plural nominative / accusative dative / genitive vocative लड (laḍkā) = boy लड (laḍke) = लड (laḍkȭ) लड (laḍkō) = the boys the boys / the hey boys! Boys दरव ज (darvāzā) = दरव ज (darvāze) = दरव ज (darvāzȭ) --- Tür the doors = the doors / the doors ii) Masculine nouns that end in another vowel or consonant remain in the plural form im Nominative and accusative, but get the ending ओ) ȭ) in the dative and genitive as well as) ō) in the vocative. 16

17 Singular plural nominative / accusative dative / genitive vocative भ ई (bʰāi) = brother भ ई (bʰāi) = the brothers भ इय (bʰāijȭ) = the brothers / the brothers भ इय (bʰāijō) = dear brothers! ग र (gurū) = the ग र (gurū) = ग र ओ (guruȭ) = ग र ओ (guruō) = teacher the teacher the teacher / the love teacher! Teacher ह थ (hātʰ) = hand ह थ (hātʰ) the hands ह थ (hātʰȭ) = the hands / hands --- iii) For feminine nouns ending in (ie), the nominative and accusative changes [(ie ) इय (ijã)], in the dative and in the genitive [(ie) इय (ijȭ)] and in the vocative [(ie) इय (ijō)] instead. 17th

18 singular plural nominative / dative / genitive vocative accusative लड (laḍki) = लड क य (laḍkijã) = लड क य (laḍkijȭ लड क य (laḍkijō) = girls the girls =) Hey girls! the girl / the girl खखड (kʰiḍki) = खखड क य (khiḍkijȭ) खखड क य --- window = (kʰiḍkijȭ) = the window window / the window iv) Feminine nouns that refer to a consonant or another vowel other than / i: / end, get the ending ए (ẽ) in the nominative and accusative, ओ (ȭ) in the dative and in the genitive and (ō) in the vocative. However, unlike male nouns, there is no vowel change. 18th

19 Singular plural nominative / accusative dative / genitive vocative म (mã) = mother म ए (mãẽ) = the mothers म ओ (mãȭ) = the mothers / the mothers म ओ (mãō) = Dear mothers! भ ष (bʰāschā) = भ ष ए (bʰāschāẽ) = भ ष ओ (bʰāschāȭ) --- language the languages ​​= the languages ​​/ languages ​​क त ब (kitāb) = book क त ब (kitābẽ) = the books क त ब (kitābȭ) = the books / books

20 Articles in Hindi Unlike in German, there are neither definite nor indefinite articles in Hindi, but only demonstrative articles that can be translated as this or that in German. Case singular plural simple emphatic 11 simple emphatic nominative यह (yah) = this / this / this वह (wah) = यह (yahi) = this / this / this वह (wahi) = य (ye) = this यह (yahi) = this व (we) = that वह (wahi) = that / that / that / that / that that that accusative इस (is) = this इस (isi) = इन (in) = this इन ह (inhi) = / this / this this / this this / this उस (us) = that उस (usi) = उन (un) = that उन ह (unhi) = / that / that dative इस (ise) = this / this उस (use) = that / those that / that / that --- इन ह (inhe) = this --- उन ह (unhe) = those those Emphatic articles can be in German as exactly these (r / n / m) or exactly those (r / n / m) to be translated. 20th

21 Cases in Hindi Hindi knows a total of eight cases (the nominative, the accusative, the dative, the genitive, the locative, the ablative, the instrumental and the vocative), which, with the exception of the nominative (basic form of the noun in the sentence), be expressed using endings. In addition, when changing the case, the basic form of the noun also inflects. The inflection also depends on the number of the noun. Nominative singular plural --- षवद य थ (vidyārtʰi) the student --- षवद य थ (vidyārtʰiyȭ) the student Examples: यह षवद य थ ह सशय र ह (yah vidyārtʰi hoschiyār hai.) = The student is clever. य षवद य थ ह सशय र ह (ye vidyārtʰi hoschiyār hẽ.) = The students are clever. Accusative Singular Plural {- (- षवद य चथम the pupil {- (- षवद य चथमय the pupil kō)} (vidyārtʰi-kō) kō)} (vidyārtʰiyȭkō) Examples: म इस षवद य चथमक पह नत ह (mẽ is vidyārtʰikō. Pehtschānt is vidyārtʰikō. Pehtschāntʰi-kō) hũ.) = I know this student. म इन षवद य चथमय क पह नत ह (mẽ in vidyārtʰiyȭkō pehtschānti hũ.) = I know these students. 21

22 dative singular plural {- (- kō)} षवद य चथम (vidyārtʰi-kō) the pupil {- (- kō)} षवद य चथमय (vidyārtʰiyȭkō) the pupil Examples: सशक ष न इस षवद य चथमक अच छ अ हदय ( schikschakne is vidyārtʰikō atschʰe ank diye) = The teacher gave the student good grades. सशक ष न इन षवद य चथमय क अच छ अ हदय (shikschakne in vidyārtʰiyȭkō atschʰe ank diye) = The teacher gave the students good grades. Genitive Singular Plural {- (-kā) षवद य चथम of the student {- (-kā) षवद य चथमय of the student [mask.sg.], (vidyārtʰi- [mask.sg.] (vidyārtʰiyȭ- - (-ke) kā ), kā) [mask.pl.], षवद य चथम - (-ke) षवद य चथमय (-ki) (vidyārtʰike) [mask.pl.], (vidyārtʰiyȭke) [fem. sg./pl.], षवद य चथम (-ki) षवद य चथमय (vidyārtʰi- [fem. (vidyārtʰiyȭ- ki) sg./pl.], ki) The endings of the noun designating the owner are in view adapted to the noun that calls possession or is possessed. 22nd

23 Examples: Mask. Sg.Mask. Pl. Fem. Sg. Fem. Pl. षवद य चथमक सशक ष (vidyārtʰikā shikshak) षवद य चथमय क सशक ष (vidyārtʰiyȭkā shikschak) षवद य चथमक सशक ष (vidyārtʰike shikschak) षवद य चथमय ā चथमय ārt (ik) y (vidyārtschik shikschak) चथमय क सशक षक ष (vidyārtʰiyȭki schikschikā) षवद य चथमक सशक षक ष ए (vidyārtʰiki schikschikāẽ) षवद य चथमय क सशक षक ष ए (vidyārtʰiyȭki schikschikin) the pupil the pupil the pupil the teacher the pupil the pupil of the student The teacher of the students The teachers of the student The teachers of the students Locative singular and plural - म (-mẽ) = in घर (gharmẽ), ब तल (bōtalmẽ) in the house, in the bottle -पर (-par) = on / an म ज पर (mezpar), द व रपर (diwārpar) on the chair, on the wall - प स (-ke pās) = at [only for living beings] षवद य थ क प स (vidyārtʰi ke pās), म क प स (mã ke pās) with the student, with the mother 23

24 Ablative singular and plural स लस (skũlse), हदल ल स (Dillise) from school, from Delhi {-स (-se)} षवद यचथमस (vidyārtʰise) म स (mãse) from student, from mother instrumental singular and Plural {-स (-se)} म म स (chammatschse), द त स (dātȭse) षवद य चथमस (vidyārtʰise), षवद य चथमय स (vidyārtʰiyȭse) with the spoon, with the teeth with the student, with the students Examples: म बच म म स खखल रह ह (mã batscheko tschammatschse kʰilā rahi hai) = The mother feeds the baby with a spoon. म र भ ई द त स ब तल ख लत ह (merā bʰāi dātȭse botlẽ kʰōltā hai.) = My brother opens bottles with his teeth. प र ध य प नए षवद य चथमस ब त र रह ह (prādʰyāpak nae vidyārtʰise bāt kar rahe hẽ.) = The lecturer speaks to the new student. 24

25 प र ध य प नए षवद य चथमय स ब त र रह ह (prādʰyāpak nae vidyārtʰiyȭse bāt kar rahe hẽ.) = The lecturer speaks to the new students. Vocative singular {-ए (-e) लड क [mask.] Plural Hey boy! (laḍke) (-ō) बच च (batschō) {-ओ children, [mask / fem] - बहन (bahnō) Dear sisters, ... (-iyō) लड ककय {-इय [fem.]} girls ,. .. (laḍkiyō) In the vocative, only masculine nouns ending in (ā) as well as feminine nouns ending in (/ i: / and a consonant in the plural are inflected. Other nouns remain unchanged. Examples: लड क, ज र यह आ! ( laḍke, zarā yahã ā) = boy, please come here! बच च, अब स न ज ओ! (batschō, ab sōne dschāo!) = children, go to sleep now! बहन, म आप आभ र ह! (bahnō, mẽ ( laḍkiyō, apnā āpkā ābhāri hũ) = Dear sisters, thank you. लड ककय अपन मर स फ र! kamrā sāf karō.) = Girls, clean up your room! 25

26 Adjectives and adjective declination in Hindi In Hindi, only adjectives are declined that end in (ā) in the unflexed form. As in German, declinable adjectives have to be adapted in gender, number and case to the noun that they describe in more detail. However, this is less complicated in Hindi than in German, because Hindi has no indefinite or definite articles. In the following it is shown how the adjective ल ब (lambā) = large inflected. Masculinu m (singular) nominative / accusative {-ā} dative / genitive {-ā -e} ल ब आदम (lambā ādmi) = a great man / the great man; a / the great man ल ब आदम (lambe ādmikō) = a / the great man ल ब आदम (lambe ādmikā) = a / the great man Masculinu m (plural) nominative / accusative {-ā -e} dative / genitive {-ā -e} ल ब आदम (lambe ādmi) = great Men / the great men ल ब आदसमय (lambe ādmiyȭkō) = great men / the great men ल ब लड (lambe ādmiyȭkā) = great men / the great men Feminine (singular) nominative / accusative {-ā -i} ल ब औरत ( lambi orat) = a tall woman / the tall woman 26

27 Feminine (plural) dative / genitive {-ā -i} nominative / accusative {-ā -i} dative / genitive {-ā -i} ल ब औरत (lambi oratkō) = a great woman / the great woman ल ब औरत (lambi ortẽ) = tall women / the tall women. ल ब औरत (lambi ortȭkō) = tall women / the tall women. ल ब औरत (lambi ortȭkā) = tall women / the tall women 27

28 The undeclinable adjectives, on the other hand, always remain unchanged.Some undeclinable adjectives are listed below: ह सशय र (hoschijār) = intelligent, स दर (sundar) = beautiful, गर ब (garib) = poor, अम र (amier) = rich, ग ल (gōl) = round, ल ल (lāl) = red, ग ल ब (gulābi) = pink personal pronoun in Hindi nominative accusative / dative 12 म (mẽ) = I म झ (mudsche) / म झस (mudschʰse) = me / me हम (ham) we हम (hamẽ) / हमस (hamse) = us त (tū) = you त झ (tujʰe) / त झस (tuje) = you / you त म (tum) = you [more respectful than त म ह (tumhẽ) / त मस (tumse) = you / dir त (tū)] आप (āp) = you आप (āpkō) / आपस (āpse) = you / you त म ल ग (tum lōg) = you त म ल ग (tum logȭkō) / त म ल ग स (tum logȭse) = you व (wō) = he / she इस (ise) / इसस (isse); उस (use) / उसस (usse) = him / her व (we) = she (plural) इन ह (inhẽ) / इनस (inse); उन ह (unhẽ) / उनस (unse) = they / them 12 In Hindi, the personal pronouns in the accusative and dative are usually the same. However, the main verb in the sentence determines the pronoun to be used. 28

29 The verb in Hindi The infinitives (verbs in the basic form) always have the ending -न (-ṇā), for example: ब लन (bolṇā) = to speak, स नन (sunnā) = to hear. As in German, the verbs in Hindi are conjugated using the personal ending. The personal endings in Hindi are not only tempo and number specific, but also enjoyment specific. In addition to the present tense, the past tense and the future tense, Hindi knows four other tenses: the present tense, the past tense, 13 perfect and past perfect. Past and future tense are the only simple tenses in Hindi. All other tenses are made up of a participle of the main verb and the auxiliary verb ह न (honā) = to be. However, in contrast to German, not only the auxiliary verb but also the participle is often inflected. Examples of the progressive forms in Hindi: म ए क त ब पढ रह ह. (mẽ ek kitāb paḍʰ rahā hũ) = I am reading. I'm reading a book. म ए क त ब पढ रह थ. (mẽ ek kitāb paḍʰ rahā tʰā) = I was reading. I was reading a book. 13 The progressive forms are used to express that what is described happens at the specified point in time (e). In German one could express this as follows: I am / was reading. 29

30 present tense in Hindi singular male female German translation 1st person म ब लत ह (mẽ bōltā hũ) म ब लत ह (mẽ bolti hũ) I speak त ब लत ह (tu bōltā hai) त ब लत ह (tu bolti hai) You speak 2nd person त म ब लत ह (tum bōlte hō) त म ब लत ह (tum bōlti hō) आप ब लत ह (āp bōlte hẽ) आप ब लत ह (āp bōlti hẽ) You speak 3rd person वह ब लत ह (wah bōltā hai) वह ब लत ह (wah bōlti hai) he / she speaks plural male female German translation 1st person हम ब लत ह (ham bōlte हम ब लत ह (ham bōlti hẽ) we speak hẽ) 2. Person त म ब लत ह (tum bōlte त म ब लत ह (tum bōlti hō) you speak hō) आप ब लत ह (āp bōlte hẽ) आप ब लत ह (āp bōlti hẽ) You speak 3rd person व ब लत ह (we bōlte hẽ) व ब लत ह (we bōlti hẽ) they speak 30

31 Simple past in Hindi singular male female German translation 1st person म ब ल (mẽ bōlā) म ब ल (mẽ bōli) I spoke त ब ल (tu bōlā) त ब ल (tu bōli) you spoke 2nd person त म ब ल (tum bōle) त म ब ल (tum bōli) आप ब ल (āp bōte) आप ब ल (āp bōlĩ) They spoke 3rd person वह ब ल (wah bōlā) वह ब ल (wah bōli) he / she spoke Plural male female German translation 1st person हम ब ल (mẽ bōle) हम ब ल (mẽ bōlĩ) we spoke 2nd person त म ब ल (tum bōte) त म ब ल (tum bōli) you spoke आप ब ल (āp bōte) आप ब ल (āp bōlĩ) They spoke 3rd person व ब ल (wah bōlā) व ब ल (wah bōlĩ) they spoke 31

32 Future tense in Hindi singular male female German translation 1st person म ब ल ग (mẽ bōlūngā) म ब ल ग (mẽ bōlūngi) I will speak त ब ल ग (tu bōlegā) त ब ल ग (tu bōlegi) you will speak 2nd person त म ब ल ग (tum bōlōge) त म ब ल ग (tum bōlōgi) आप ब ल ग (āp bōlenge) आप ब ल ग (āp bōlengi) They will speak 3rd person वह ब ल ग (wah bōlegā ) वह ब ल ग (wah bōlegi) he / she will speak 32

33 plural male female German translation 1st person हम ब ल ग (ham bōlenge) हम ब ल ग (ham bōlengi) we will speak 2nd person त म ब ल ग (tum bōlōge) त म ब ल ग (tum bōlōge) you will speak आप ब ल ग (āp bōlenge) आप ब ल ग (āp bōlengi) They will speak 3rd person व ब ल ग (we bōlenge) व ब ल ग (we bōlengi) they will speak For negations one uses the in Hindi Word नह (nahĩ) = not. Unlike in German, the negation word is introduced to the finite verb. Negation in the Hindi present simple past म ब लत नह ह (mẽ bōltā nahĩ hũ) [male] not me. speak म नह ब ल (mẽ nahĩ bōlā) [male] I did not speak म ब लत नह ह (mẽ bolti म नह ब ल (mẽ nahĩ nahĩ hũ) [female] bōli) [female] हम ब लत नह ह (ham bōlte nahĩ hẽ) We don't speak हम नह ब ल (ham nahĩ bōle) [male] We don't speak [male] 33

34 हम ब लत नह ह (ham हम नह ब ल (ham nahĩ bōlti nahĩ hẽ) [female] bōlĩ) [female] त ब लत नह ह (tū bōltā nahĩ hai) you don't. speak त नह ब ल (tū nahĩ bōlā) [male] you did not speak त ब लत नह ह (tū bōlti त नह ब ल (tū nahĩ nahĩ hai) bōli) [female] त म ब लत नह ह (tum bōlte nahĩ hō ) [male] you don't speak / you don't speak त म नह ब ल (tum nahĩ bōle) [male] त म नह ब ल (tum nahĩ you didn't speak / you didn't speak nicht म ब लत नह ह (tum bōli) [ female] bōlti nahĩ hō) [female] आप ब लत नह ह (āp bōlte nahĩ hẽ) [male] they do not speak आप नह ब ल (āp nahĩ bōle) [male] they do not speak आप ब लत नह ह (āp आप नह ब ल (āp nahĩ bōlte nahĩ hẽ) bōlĩ) [female] [female] वह ब लत नह ह (wah bōltā nahĩ hai) he does not speak वह नह ब ल (wah nahĩ bōlā) he did not speak. वह ब लत नह ह (wah bōlti nahĩ hai) she does not speak वह नह ब ल (wah nahĩ bōli) she does not speak 34

35 व ब लत नह ह (we bōlte nahĩ hẽ) [male] they did not speak व नह ब ल (we nahĩ bōle) [male] they did not speak व ब लत नह ह (we bōlti व नह ब ल (we nahĩ nahĩ hẽ ) [female] bōlĩ) [female] Questions 1) Compare the plural forms of Hindi with the plural forms of German! 2) Compare the case system of Hindi with that of German! 3) How do you assess the following mistake made by a learner of German as a foreign language with Hindi as mother tongue? What does he want to express? I am reading. or I was writing. 4 Hindi vocabulary In the following, numerals from one to one hundred, relationships, days of the week and colors are listed in a table to give a brief insight into the vocabulary of Hindi. 35

36 Numbers 1 to 100 In Hindi, numbers are quite complex. They all have their own names and must be learned individually. However, as in German, first the ones and then the twenties, thirties, etc. are mentioned. 1 ए 2 (ek) 5 प न 6 10 (nō) 13 त रह सरह 14 इक स 18 पच स 22 उनत स 26 त त स 30 स त स 34 इक ल स 38 प त ल स (pẽntālies) 19 ब ईस छब ब स त स त स अत स 42 बय ल स 23 छछय ल स (tschʰiyālies) 12 प द रह उन न स त ईस 27 सत त ईस 16 इ त त 20 प त स 24 उ ल स 28 त त ल स 32 स त ल स (sẽtālies) बत त स (batties) 36 छत त स (tschhatties) 40 ल स (tschāḷies) 44 (tẽtālies) 47 अट ठ ईस (atṭʰāies) (untscāḷies) 43 ब स (tschōbies) (pasties) 39 ब स (bies) (ikatties) 35 स लह (soḷah) (sattāies) 31 ब रह (bārah) (teis) (bayālies) 46 ग य रह आ ठ (ãṭʰ) (unṇies) (arties) (iktschālies) 45 अठ रह 8 (pandrah) (tsauties) (sẽties) (ties) (tetties) 37 दह स त र (tschār) (gyārah) (tschʰabies) (unties) (bāies) (patschies) 29 दस 4 (saat) (aṭhārah) ( ikkies) 25 (tschʰe) 7 (tschodah) (satrah) 21 छ त न (tien) (das) (terah) 17 3 (dō) (pãtsch) 9 द व ल स (tschavālies) 48 अत मल स (artālies) 36

37 49 उन स 50 (untschās) 53 छतपमन सत त वन इ सठ (iksaṭʰ) प सठ 58 उनहत तर 62 छतहत तर 66 सत तत तर 70 इक य स 74 प स 78 नव स 82 छतर नव 86 सत त नव (sattāṇve) सत तर हत तर अठ हत तर बय स छछय स 90 नब ब 71 र नव 75 अठ नव (aṭʰānve) छतरसठ सरसठ इ हत तर पछत तर 79 उन न स 64 छतर स 68 सत त स 72 इक य नव 76 प नव 80 छनन य नव (ninyānve) अस स (assi) 84 र स (chōrāsi) 88 अट ठ स (aṭtʰāsi) 92 ब नव (bānave) 96 (pachānve) 99 शह त तर (shahattar) (ikyāṇve) 95 बहत तर (bahattar sattāsi) 91 अरसठ (arsaṭʰ) (tirāsi) 87 सठ (chsaṭʰ) (unnāsi) 83 स ठ (sāṭʰ) (patschʰattar) (chōrānve) (ikhattar) (nabbe) 94 उनसठ छप पन (chappan) (sarsaṭʰ) (chʰiyāsi) (chʰiyāsi) tirānve) (bayāsi) (navāsi) 93 छछय सठ 56 (tirsaṭʰ) (aṭʰhattar) (patschāsi) (tschōhattar) (eikyāsi) 85 ब सठ प पन ब वन (bāvan) (unsāṭʰ) (sattar) (sattattarṭʰ (tschiy) tihattar) 77 अठ वन 52 (patschpan) (bāsaṭʰ) (unhattar) (aṭthāvan) (pẽsaṭʰ) 69 वन इक य वन (ikyāvan) (chōvan) (sattāvan) (pachās) (tirpan) 57 प स छछय न व (chiyve) 100 ए स (ek sō) 37

38 The numbers from 100 are easier to form if you know the numbers up to 100 by heart. 101 ए स ए ए हज र 1000 (ek hazār) (ek-so-ek) 110 ए स दस दस हज र (das hazār) (ek-so-das) 150 ए स प स ए ल ख (ek lākh) ( ek-so-patschās) 200 द स (das lākh) (do so) 300 दस ल ख त न स (tien-so) ए र ड (ek karod) weekdays Hindi German स मव र (somvār) Monday म गळव र ( mangaḷvār) Tuesday बध व र (budhvār) Wednesday गर व र (guruvār) Thursday शक र व र (schukravār) Friday शछनव र (schanivār) Saturday रषवव र (ravivār) Sunday 38

39 Relationships Hindi German Remarks म (mã) / म त (mātā) mother षपत (pitā) father ब ट (beṭā) son ब ट (beṭi) daughter बह (bahū) daughter-in-law जम ई (dschamāi) son-in-law द द (dādā) grandfather On the father's side द द (dādi) paternal grandmother प प (pōtā) grandson son of the son प त (pōti) granddaughter daughter of the son न न (nānā) maternal grandfather न न (nāni) maternal grandmother न त (nāti न) grandson of the daughter's son तन (nātan) granddaughter daughter of daughter बहन (behen) sister द द (didi) older sister 39

40 बहन ई ज ज (dschidschā) (bahnoi) brother-in-law husband of sister भ ज (bʰāndschā) nephew son of sister भ ज (bʰāndschi) niece daughter of sister भ ई (bʰāi) brother भय य (bʰaiyyā) elder brother भ भi (bʰāb ) Sister-in-law wife of brother भत ज (bʰatidschā) nephew son of brother भत ज (bʰatidschi) niece daughter of brother म स (mōsi) maternal aunt म स (mōsā) म स र भ ई (mōserā bʰāiरā) ā स सōserā behen) uncle cousin cousin husband of maternal aunt maternal son son of maternal aunt ब आ (aatyā) paternal aunt फ फ (pʰūpʰā) फ फ र भ ई (pʰupʰerā bʰāi) फ फ रʰ बहन (pheninʰuperi) husband paternal aunt son of paternal aunt daughter of paternal aunt 40

41 म म (māmā) maternal uncle म म (māmi) मम र भ ई (mamerā bʰāi) मम र बहन (mameri behen) aunt cousin cousin wife of maternal uncle son of maternal uncle daughter of maternal uncle Father's brother त ई (tāi) aunt wife of father's older brother (chātschā) uncle father's younger brother (chātschi) sch भ ई (chacherā bāi) र बहन (chacheri behen) पत न (patni) aunt cousin cousin wife wife of younger brother of father son of paternal uncle daughter of paternal uncle पत (pati) husband स स (sās) mother-in-law सस र (sasur) father-in-law ननद (nanad) sister-in-law sister of husband न द ई ​​(nandoi) brother-in-law husband of sister of husband 41

42 ज ठ (dscheṭʰ) brother-in-law older brother of husband ज ठ न (dscheṭʰāni) द वर (dewar) द वर न (dewrani) sister-in-law brother-in-law sister-in-law wife of older brother of husband younger brother of husband wife of younger brother of husband स ल ( sālā) brother-in-law brother of wife स ल (sāli) sister-in-law sister of wife स ड (sādū) brother-in-law husband of wife's sister 42

43 colors Hindi ल (kālā) German black सफ द (safed) white न ल (nielā) blue हर (harā) green ल ल (lāl) red भर (bʰūrā) brown प ल (pieḷā) yellow ग ल ब (gulābi) pink न र ग (nārangi) orange मयप ख (mayurpankhi) turquoise ब गन (bẽgni) lilac, violet Questions 1.) How many words does a learner of Hindi have to learn to be able to count up to 100? 2.) Which language is more differentiated with regard to the relatives, German or Hindi? 43

44 5 Syntax of Hindi Word order is subject to systematic rules in all languages, so that arbitrary combinations of words do not constitute a (grammatical) sentence: 14 German sentences Hindi sentences This sentence is correct. यह व क य ठ ह (yah vākya ṭʰik hai.) = This sentence is correct. This sentence is also correct. ठ यह व क य भ ह (ṭʰik yah vākya bʰi hai) = This sentence is also correct. * This sentence is incorrect. यह व क य नह ह ठ (yah vākya nahĩ hai ṭʰik) = This sentence is incorrect. (!) * This incorrect sentence is correct. * यह नह व क य ह ठ (yah nahĩ vākya hai ṭʰik) = This non-sentence is correct. But: यह व क य. ठ नह ह (yah vākya ṭʰik nahĩ hai) = This sentence is not correct. Why is this sentence correct now? अब यह व क य क य ठ ह? (ab yah vākya kyȭ ṭʰik hai?) = Now why is this sentence correct? 14 Ungrammatic sentences are marked with an asterisk 44

45 Left alignment in Hindi sentences In the basic position, the subject always comes first in Hindi sentences, while the object is in the second position and the predicate is in the last position. The order of the clauses is therefore: Subject Object Predicate (SOP). If you reduce the sentence but it does not always obey me from Alfred Polgar to the clauses subject, predicate and object (i.e. it obeys me), one recognizes the basic structure of a simple sentence in Hindi: subject object predicate यह भ ष (yah bhāschā) म र (meri) स नत ह (sunti hai) This language my hears. The basic position of the clauses is in German SPO: subject predicate object This language obeys me In Hindi, the clause sequence SOP applies to the sentence types statements, questions and prompts. In contrast to German, the parts of the sentence do not change their positions when the sentence types change, so that the left-hand alignment is also retained for question and prompt sentences, i.e. the predicate is at the end and all other parts of the sentence are placed in front of it: 45

46 German Hindi statement Rāhul is coming. र ह ल आ रह ह (Rāhul ā rahā hai.) Question Is Rāhul coming? र ह ल आ रह ह? (Rāhul ā rahā hai?) Prompt phrase Come on, Rāhul! र ह ल आ! (Rāhul ā!) Free word order The basic order SOP is less binding in Hindi than in German. Depending on the context, the parts of the sentence in Hindi main clauses can be rearranged relatively freely: यह भ ष (yah bhāschā) म र (meri) नह स नत. (nahĩ sunti) SOP यह भ ष (yah bhāschā) नह स नत (nahĩ sunti) म र (meri) SPO म र (meri) नह स नत (nahĩ sunti) यह भ ष. (yah bhāschā) OPS नह स नत (nahĩ sunti) यह भ ष (yah bhāschā) म र. (meri) PSO नह स नत (nahĩ sunti) म र (meri) यह भ ष. (yah bhāschā) POS left alignment within the clauses In our Hindi example sentence by Polgar, the subject [यह भ ष (yah bhāschā)] contains two words. The second word is the main component (head) of the sentence element subject. In Hindi, the head is always at the bottom of the sentence. As soon as the intention is to make additions within a clause [as in our example यह (yah)], all information is placed on the left in front of the head (in our example भ ष (bhāschā)]. The Hindi is thus one mainly after Left-branching language, German, on the other hand, knows both forms of branching, i.e. both left and right orientation: 46

47 Pupil षवद य थ वह षवद य थ The Pupil वह स ल अच छ षवद य थ (head) Left and right alignment in German Left alignment in Hindi The above examples are parts of sentences in which the head can be easily recognized . It gets more complicated with more complex attributes such as For example: head The task from the textbook of the previous school year, which is difficult for pupils to understand and which the teacher had selected. In addition, all further additions within this nominal group must match the head grammatically. The larger a noun group is, the more difficult it is for learners of German or Hindi to use the additions within the clause correctly, as they have difficulty recognizing the head and adapting further information grammatically. If you translate this complex noun group, in which there is also a relative clause, into Hindi, the head (task) is at the very end of the clause. षवद य चथमय म श श ल लगन व ल षपछल श ल य वषम क त बस सशक ष ष न ह ए सव ल. (Vidyārthiyȭkō muschkil lagnewāle pitschʰle shaliya varschki kitābse shikshakȭne tschunehue sawāl) To illustrate the word order in Hindi, the endings have been translated into reverse-German so that one can better see to what extent the word order of German and Hindi differ from one another: 47

48 षवद य चथमय म श श ल लगन व ल षपछल श ल य वषम क त बस School year that seemed difficult to school year-from book-from head सशक ष न न ह ए सव ल सव ल Subordinate clauses are also found in subordinate clauses the left alignment. In German, for example, relative clauses are placed after the head (reference noun) (i.e. right, right orientation!): The student who comes from school cries. In this example sentence, the relative pronoun after the first comma has to be the, because it creates a reference to the student's noun. The relative pronoun is based on the gender (here: male) and number (here: singular), taking into account the reference noun, but not on the case 15, even if in this example sentence reference nouns (the student) and relative pronouns (the) are in the nominative. 15 E.g. the student whom (here: accusative) you just saw, or the student to whom (here: dative) I gave the book. 48

49 The example sentence can be translated into Hindi as follows: वह स लस आन व ल षवद य थ र रह ह (wah skūḷse ānewālā vidyārthi rō rahā hai.) Reverse German: The school-coming pupil cries. However, the upper sentence can also be translated as follows: वह षवद य थ, ज स लस आ रह ह, र रह ह (wah vidyārthi, dschō skūḷse ā rahā hai, rō rahā hai) The student who comes to school cries . As in German, this variant is right-aligned and also contains a relative pronoun ज (dschō). However, this variant is used very rarely, namely only when it is not possible to convert the relative clause (in our example that comes from school) into a participle attribute (in our example that comes from school). If such a sentence is formed, the relative pronoun must be adapted to the gender and number of the reference noun (in our example the student) as well as the case, as in German. Relative pronouns in Hindi case singular plural nominative (mask. / Fem.) ज (dschō) ज (dschō) = the accusative / dative (mask. / Fem.) श जस (dschise) श जन ह (dschinhẽ) genitive (mask .) श जस (dschiskā) श जन (dschinkā) genitive (mask. Pl.) श जस (dschiske) श जन (dschinke) genitive (fem. Sg. / Pl.) श जस (dschiski) श जन (dschinki) 49

50 questions 1.) Is the Hindi aligned left and / and right? 2.) Compare the relative pronouns of Hindi with those of German. 6 Linking sentences in Hindi In order to produce a meaningful text, sentences must be linked. Two technical terms are indispensable here, which have to be mentioned when describing special textual features: cohesion and coherence. With the help of means of cohesion, references are made between the sentences in the text in different forms. These linguistic signals help to organize the text logically. So are z. B. Conjunctions like and, because or although and pro-forms like he, she, this, this, thereby, him cohesive means. Coherence, on the other hand, means the logical structure of a text. A text is not just a collection of sentences. Coherence is created by means of cohesion. Conjunctions as a means of cohesion In many cases, means of cohesion must be used in the text, otherwise connected sentences or entire texts are not coherent, as in the following example: * I know the German language, it doesn't always obey me. * म जममन भ ष म प रव ण ह, वह म र हम श नह स नत ह Mẽ Dscherman bhāschāmẽ pravin hũ, wah meri hameschā nahĩ sunti hai. Here, however, the lack of the cohesive agent or ल क न (lekin) is the trigger for the contradiction not being verbalized and the sentence thus becoming incomprehensible. 50

51 If you replace the conjunction with though in our example sentence, the word order changes in German: I can speak the German language, but it doesn't always obey me. I have mastered the German language, although it doesn't always obey me. The change in the cohesive means, although, also changes the sentence structure in Hindi, but compared to German the change is more radical. म जममन भ ष म प रव ण ह, ल क न वह म र हम श नह स नत ह Mẽ Dscherman bhaschmẽ praviṇ hũ, lekin wah meri hameschā nahĩ sunti hai. जममन भ ष म र हम श नह स नत ह, कफर भ म इस भ ष म प रव ण ह Dscherman bʰāschā meri hameschā nahĩ, sunti hai, pʰir bʰi mẽ is bhāschāmẽ pravin hũ. although Pro-Forms as a means of cohesion With Pro-Forms, people, objects and larger facts can be referred to in the text. In Hindi there is only one pronoun व (wō) for he / she / es, but unlike in German, the endings of the verb make it clear which person is meant. Nevertheless, the pronoun cannot be left out. The Polgar sentence may make this clear: I have mastered the German language, but it does not always obey me. म जममन भ ष म प रव ण ह, ल क न वह म र हम श नह स नत ह Mẽ Jerman bʰaschamẽ pravin hũ, lekin wah meri hameschā nahĩ sunti hai. she 51

52 The Hindi pronoun वह (wah) is gender-neutral (no distinction according to gender). But from the main verb स नत (sunti) you can tell that the subject of the sentence is female. (i) is the personal ending for feminine nouns. Question How can you prove that German and Hindi are related to each other? Further reading Agnihotri, R. (2007): Hindi An Essential Grammar. New York: Routledge Canepari, L. (2007): A Handbook of Pronunciation. Munich: Lincom Gatzlaff-Hälsig, M. (2003): Grammatical Guide of Hindi, 5th edition. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Iyer, V. (2008): Compact Hindi Dictionary (German Hindi English). Norderstedt. BOD Books on Demand Kachru, Y. (2006): Hindi. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Pathak, R.C. (1946): Bhargava s Standard Illustrated Dictionary of the Hindi Language. Banaras: The Bharghava Bhushan Press Vermeer, H.J. / Schmitt, W. (1985): Introduction to grammar, modern Hindi. 4thEdition Heidelberg: Julius Groos Verlag 52