How are monocots and dicots the same
What are monocot and dicot plants?
The department of flowering plants is divided into two classes: monocot and dicot. Differences:
- Monocot seeds have one cotyledon and dicotyledons have two.
- In monocots the root system is fibrous and in dicots the root system.
- With monocotyledon leaf veins, parallel and arched, and with dicotyledon veins reticulate (cirrus).
- Monocotyledons do not have a cambium, so they cannot grow thicker and all are herbs. Dicots have cambium, so they can be herbs, shrubs, and trees.
- The number of flower elements (stamens, petals) in monocots is a multiple of three (3,6,9 ...), and in dicot - five (5, 10, 15 ...)
- The grain family (rye, wheat, wheatgrass) is a straw, intercalated growth, an inflorescence is a complex tip, the fruit is a caryopsis.
- Lily family (onion, tulip, lily of the valley) - have rhizomes and bulbs.
- Cruciferous family (radish, cabbage, rapeseed) - 4 petals, fruit peel.
- The legume family is also moth (peas, clover, beans) - the bean fruit, nodule bacteria.
- The Solanaceae family (potatoes, tomatoes, peppers) - fused sepals and petals, poisonous.
- Family Asteraceae (sunflower, chamomile, dandelion) - small flowers are collected in an inflorescence basket, fruit axis.
- Family Rosaceae (apple tree, wild strawberry, mountain ash).
The division of flowering plants into classes is based on the structure of the root system, the number of cotyledons, the venation of the leaves, etc. The division into families is based on the structure of the flowers and fruits.
1. Choose three correct answers out of six and write down the numbers under which they are given. For plants with the leaf venation shown in the figure, the following symptoms are also characteristic:
1) two cotyledons per seed
2) The number of flower parts is a multiple of three
3) the diffuse structure of the conducting system
4) The cambium ring is missing
5) rod root system
6) double flower envelope
2. Select three attributes that are specific to the organism shown in the figure.
1) vegetative reproduction
2) parallel venation
3) double fertilization
4) four-limbed flower
5) stalk - straw
6) Fruit-multiple feathers
1. Choose three correct answers out of six and write down the numbers under which they are given. What signs are typical of plants of the family, the representative of which is shown in the figure?
1) Fruit achenes
2) the straw
3) Insertion Growth
4) compound sheets
5) Mesh networking of the leaves
6) tip of the inflorescence complex
2. Choose three correct answers out of six and write down the numbers under which they are given. What signs are characteristic of the specified organism?
1) parallel venation of the leaves
2) the straw
3) the presence of cambium in the stem
4) fruit - achenes
5) fibrous root system
6) vegetative reproduction
Choose one that is the most correct option. Compositae fruit
3) stone fruit
Pick three correct answers out of six and write down the numbers under which they are given. What are the characteristics of dicotyledonous plants?
1) reticular leaf venation
2) The root system is fibrous
3) The root system is rod
4) arcing of the blades
5) two cotyledons per seed
6) parallel venation of the leaves
1. Establish a correspondence between the plant classes (1-dicotyledon, 2-monocotyledon) and their properties. Write down the numbers 1 and 2 in the correct order.
A) The fibrous root system
B) The root-root system
C) Leaves have an arch or parallel venation
D) The number of flower parts is a multiple of 3
E) The leaves have a cirrus or palm vein
2. Set the correspondence between the trait of angiosperms and the class for which it is characteristic: 1) dicotyledonous, 2) monocotyledonous
A) the presence of a cotyledon in the seed
B) fibrous root system
C) the presence of two cotyledons in the seed
D) Mesh networking of the leaves
D) the root-root system
E) parallel or arcuate venation of leaves
3. Establish a correspondence between the trait and the class of flowering plants for which this trait is characteristic: 1) monocotyledonous, 2) dicotyledonous. Write down the numbers 1 and 2 in the correct order.
A) the root-root system
B) a cotyledon
C) Arc treatment
D) parallel venation
D) a tripartite flower
E) five-limbed flower
4. Correspondence between the traits and classes of angiosperms that they are characteristic of: 1) monocot, 2) dicot. Write down the numbers 1 and 2 in the order that corresponds to the letters.
A) the rod-type root system
B) Leaves with parallel venation
C) The number of flower parts is a multiple of 3
D) Stem growth in thickness due to cambium
D) Insertion growth is characteristic
E) most species have a double flower envelope
5. Set the correspondence between the characteristics of angiosperms and the classes for which they are characteristic: 1) monocot, 2) dicot. Write down the numbers 1 and 2 in the order that corresponds to the letters.
A) Venation leaf grille
B) Venation of the leaf parallel
C) Thickening of the stem by cambium
D) fibrous root system
D) a tripartite flower
E) Leaves are simple and complex
1) Lack of cambium in the stem
Set the correspondence between the signs of classes and plants: 1) shepherd's bag, 2) wheat. Write down the numbers 1 and 2 in the order that corresponds to the letters.
A) The flowers are pollinated by the wind
B) has a fibrous root system
C) The leaves have developed vagina
D) Conductive bundles have cambium
D) The number of flower parts is a multiple of four
E) The seed has two cotyledons
Set the correspondence between the plants and the families they belong to: 1) Cereals, 2) Rosaceae. Write down the numbers 1 and 2 in the correct order.
D) wild strawberries
Choose one that is the most correct option. The fruit bowl is characteristic of the family
4) cruciferous vegetables
Choose one that is the most correct option. The bean fruit is found in plants of the family
Choose one that is the most correct option. Why a shepherd's bag, wild radish, mustard belongs to the cruciferous (cabbage) family
1) Have a rooted root system
2) Have a knitting of leaves
3) Its four-limbed flowers form an inflorescence brush
4) Its flowers are five-limbed and form an inflorescence basket
Choose one that is the most correct option. The main characteristic by which angiosperms are divided into classes is structure
4) the stem
Choose one that is the most correct option. Cruciferous vegetables: cabbage, radishes, and beet fruits
Choose one that is the most correct option. The main attribute according to which flowering plants belong to the same class is
1) the structure of the fetus
2) method of reproduction
3) seed structure
4) living together
Choose one that is the most correct option. A characteristic feature of a plant of the Asteraceae family is the inflorescence
2) complex umbrella
3) simple umbrella
Establish a correspondence between the feature of the plants and the family for which this feature is characteristic: 1) cabbage, 2) moths. Write down the numbers 1 and 2 in the order that corresponds to the letters.
A) Fruit bowl or pod
B) inflorescence brush
C) inflorescence brush or head
D) Flower formula ChB4L4T2 + 4P1
D) The formula of the flower is H (5) L1 + 2 + (2) T (9) + 1P1
E) fruit bean
Look at the drawing and determine (A) the type of the depicted fetus, (B) the family for which the depicted fetus is characteristic, and (C) its representatives. For each cell marked with a letter, select the appropriate term from the list provided. Write down the selected numbers in the order that corresponds to the letters.
2) beans, acacias, peanuts
5) cabbage, peas, bleached
7) cruciferous vegetables
Make a correspondence between the flowering plant families and their characteristics: 1) Compositae, 2) Grains. Write down the numbers 1 and 2 in the order that corresponds to the letters.
A) Family monocotyledons
B) small flowers are collected in large inflorescences - baskets
C) fruit - achenes
D) have a special cylindrical stem with well-developed nodes
D) The flower consists of two scales
E) class family dicotyledon
Look at a picture of a plant and write down (A) the class, (B) the type of root system and (C) the fruit. For each cell marked with a letter, select the appropriate term from the list provided. Write down the selected numbers in the order that corresponds to the letters.
Choose one that is the most correct option. What role do pulses play in nature?
1) serve as food for one person
2) enrich the soil with nitrogen salts
3) are a complete feed for farm animals
4) Nodular bacteria live on their roots
Find the three errors in the text above. Include the offer numbers in which they were created. (1) The angiosperm department is divided into the classes dicotyledon and monocotyledon. (2) Dicot plants are characterized by the presence of two cotyledons in the seed. (3) Monocot plants have a cambium ring in the stem. (4) The fibrous root system is typically characteristic of dicotyledonous plants. (5) Plants of the grain and Liliaceae families belong to the monocot class. (6) Plants belonging to the Rosaceae and Bean families belong to the Dicotyledonous class. (7) In dicotyledonous plants, the number of flower parts is usually a multiple of three.
© D. V. Pozdnyakov, 2009-2019
Monocot plants are common all over the world. Representatives of this class can be found on all continents and continents. Expressed as a percentage, they make up a quarter of all flowering plants in the world.
Monocot plants are widespread in nature. Specialists distinguish at least 60,000 species, which are grouped into more than 80 families. The most common plants are grasses. But among the representatives of these families there are species of trees and shrubs, creeping plants. They are common in the tropics (bamboo, palm, orchid, aloe).
The class of monocotyledonous plants got its name because of the number of cotyledons in the bud. It is believed that they came from primitive dicotyledonous species. Refer to angiosperm flowering plants. Bred as beautiful garden crops. Some are characterized by bright colors (gladioli, iris), others grow due to the leaves (monstera, agave). A separate group are crops, which are the main source of grain and grain.
Some plants are modest in size (up to 6 mm), but there are real giants among the representatives of the class. The royal palm often reaches a height of 70 m. The rattan calamus, which belongs to the variety of climbers, can grow up to 150 m or more.
Most of the plants are land species (lilies, tulips, timothy, wheatgrass). There are representatives of the aquatic way of life (cattails, duckweed, rest), as well as those who live in the coastal zone (calamus, whitefly, chastukha). There are epiphytic plants that settle in the crowns of trees (orchids).
In total, monocot plants are divided into 7 orders: liliaceae, sedge and grain, orchid, ginger, aroid and palm, chastuhovye and rdestovye, eriocaulonic. The central link in the class are representatives of the Lilietsvetnykh. From them there was evolution. On the one hand, the flower became more complicated to adapt to pollination by insects. Another direction concerns simplification. The flowers were adapted for pollination with the help of the wind.
According to another specification, the class of monocotyledonous plants is divided into 5 main orders. The central ones are still considered lilycvetnye. Followed by the fragrant and sedimentary. Complete the classification of Cytinaceous and Palmotsvetnye.
Differentiate between wild and cultivated species. Some cereals are classified as commercial, but there are also malicious weeds that are difficult to control among representatives of the class (wheatgrass, bluegrass). Many species are grown and used for decorative purposes. Some monocotyledonous plants are medicinal plants, others, also from this group, are poisonous.
The structure of monocotyledonous plants differs from representatives of the class of dicotyledons. The first characteristic is the root system. It is of the fibrous type and is formed by the main pole due to secondary branches. The main root quickly stops growing. This creates lateral appendages that form the root system in the upper soil layer.
The stem of the monocotyledonous plants rarely branches. The cambium is absent in it, so no thickening is observed in representatives of dicotyledonous species. Trunk bundles of vessels are randomly arranged and have a closed system. The leaves have an arcuate or parallel venation. In turn, they cover the stem. Stipules are missing.
The flower has a bisexual structure (with rare exceptions). There is one pistil and mostly six stamens. The flower can be both small and large. The most common perineal is fused, but it is also free. Calyx crown. The fruit is a box, with some species a berry forms. Seeds in their composition contain endosperm.
The group is by and large monolithic. These are mainly representatives of the grassy life form. What to look for when inspecting a plant is the root system, leaves and flowers. You can also determine if a class belongs to the fetus, if available.
The signs of monocotyledonous plants make it possible to assign this or that representative of this class, but they do not need to be considered separately, but comprehensively. A flower and an inflorescence usually have a number of petals that is a multiple of three. Stamens are determined on the same principle. In rare cases, a multitude of two can be observed. But there are never five petals and stamens.
It is important to pay attention to the leaves. Due to the type of venation, it is often possible to easily assign a plant to one class or another. In monocot leaves they have an arch or a parallel arrangement. It does not have a petiole and often covers the base of the stem.
The embryo from the cotyledon sprouts underground and cannot be carried up. The root system is fibrous, random roots are in the upper layer. The stem does not thicken because it does not have a cambium. In it, the layers of the nucleus and cortex are weakly expressed.
Monocot and dicot plants: differences
The main difference, but not the absolute difference, is the number of cotyledons. If a young plant forms a pronounced nuclear root after germination, then this is a representative of the class of dicotyledons. The reticular or cirrus vein formation of the leaf, as well as the presence of the petiole, indicate that this species does not come from the monocot family. They cannot have stipules either.
Monocots and dicots on a section of a stem have a different arrangement of conductive fibers. It can be circular or chaotic. If there is an even distribution in a circle, then the plant should be assigned to the class of dicotyledons.The same should be done when the structure of the stem is clearly separated into the nucleus, cortex, and interlayer. A five-petaled flower or a multiple of this number of petals also indicates that it does not belong to the monocot class.
Monocot plants play an important role in human life. On the one hand, this is their catch value. Bread, grain, corn and onions are the most important food crops without which one cannot imagine human life. And it's also sugar cane, date and coconut trees, pineapples.
Other species in this class are grown by humans for decorative purposes. And their value is also difficult to overestimate, since one cannot imagine life without bright and elegant tulips, hyacinths, gladioli, orchids and many other species.
Bamboo refers to building material and is the main source of such raw materials in some regions. Many plants in this class are used for feeding livestock. Some of them are weeds. Some are poisonous. Among the representatives of the monocot and medicinal species used in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and for wound healing.
We live in the flora of nature, where harmony and beauty reign. We are impressed by the variety of trees, grasses and flowers on our planet. Botany scientists and biologists divided the entire plant world into types, departments, classes, orders, families, genera and species. Such a system makes it possible to better understand the diversity of plants and to systematize knowledge about every plant topic. Consider the basic concepts in the plant world - classes of dicot and monocot, characteristics, differences, distribution on the globe and their role in our life.
The department of plants from angiosperms or tsvetkovym consists of two main classes: Dicotyledon and Monocots. The class of dicotyledonous plants includes a large number of specimens of plants that appeared on our planet a very long time ago. Dicotyledons in a quantitative ratio far outperform monocotyledon plants.
There are more than 300 families of dicotyledonous plants and about 180,000 of their species around the world. In the former USSR there are about 15,000 species of plants belonging to this class. Dicots originated on the planet much earlier than monocots. It has been proven that the latter came from the dicotyledons after a long time. We list the main characteristics by which plants can be assigned to the class of dicotyledonous representatives.
Two cotyledons in one seed - one of the main indicators of a plant of the class Dicotyledonous. A reserve of nutrients for the development of a future tree, herbaceous or flowering plant is located in the seed germ of the seed or in the tissue that surrounds the germ - the endosperm.
Rod root The system is formed from the radicle of the seed. It consists of the main root, and more subtle - lateral and subordinate roots. Such a strong underground part reliably holds the plant in the ground and ensures the absorption of the necessary nutrients and moisture that are necessary for the life of the plant.
Palmate and Cirrus Venation Leaf plate is another characteristic of dicotyledonous plants. The edge of the sheet can have as whole structure, so and robust. Dicot plants can be found with easy and compound leaveshave several simple leaflets on a petiole.
Ducts of the stem Dicot plants have a ring structure with one layer cambiaThis allows the stems or trunks to grow in width and give the plant a powerful structure. The trunk is transported organic and mineral components. The stem and stem form a depot of nutrients and water throughout the plant's life cycle. Dicotyledonous leaves are neatly arranged on the stems and branches of the class.
Four to five-limbed flowermore often with double inflorescence characteristic of dicotyledons. Dicot flowering plants are pollinated by insects.
All types of plants (from grass to wood) belong to this class.
What are the characteristics of monocot plants
Class monocotyledonous formed much later than the dicotyledons and is not so numerous in the plant world. Monocots comprise about 80 families and just over 60,000 plant species. There are signs that characterize representatives of monocot plants.
Single cotyledon embryo - The main indicator of the class difference. The nutrient depot is located in the perigastric space - the endosperm or storage tissue.
Fiber root The system is characteristic of monocots. The radicle in this class is poorly formed, so many adnexal roots are formed in an adult plant, forming a fibrous root formation.
Parallel and Bow venation Leaf blades are another distinctive feature of monocots. Petioles usually not developedand formed in the form of a vaginal pan covering the stems of plants. leaves monocotyledonous plants - simply with a straight edge.
The conductive tissue of the stem is formed by separate bundles without a concentrically growing cambium layer.
Tripartite flowers with a simple perimeter - Another important sign for monocot representatives. The flowers of this class of plants are mainly pollinated by the wind.
Herbaceous plants as Grain and bulbous presented in the vital plant forms of monocotyledonous plants.
Table monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants grade 6
This table shows the main distinguishing features of two large classes of plants: dicot and monocot.
Differences between monocot and dicot plants
Recall the differences between the classes of monocot and dicot:
- Seed structure: In the class of the monocotyledonous representatives the seed contains one cotyledon, in the dicotyledonous representatives two cotyledons.
- Root systemsa: fibrous - in monocots and a developed root root in dicots.
- Leaf venation: Parallel and arc in monocotyledons, reticulate and cirrus have dicot plants.
- Flower structure: in monocots - three-membered petals with a single flower envelope, in dicots - four- to five-membered flowers with a double flower envelope.
- Life form: predominantly woody and grassy in dicots and grassy in monocots.
- Pollination: mainly by the wind - monocotyledonous herbaceous plants and pollination by insects - with dicotyledon representatives.
Signs of monocot and dicot angiosperms
Angiosperms or blossom Green representatives of higher plants are characterized by their enormous biodiversity. A flower as a reproductive organ is a distinctive feature of these beautiful representatives of the flora.
Botany scientists and biologists have established a number of signs that characterize the affiliation of a plant specimen to dicotyledon or monocotyledon representatives in the department of flowering plants. There are many families with characteristic features of the structure of the root, stem, leaf plate, flowers, fruits and seeds. Scientists have currently identified more than 300,000 plant species from the Bloom Department.
Signs of monocot angiosperms:
- a cotyledon;
- fibrous roots;
- parallel or arch vein;
- more common grassy life forms;
- the flower has a simple perimeter with three to six petals.
Signs of dicot angiosperms:
- two cotyledons per seed;
- kernel root;
- cirrus or reticular vein formation of leaves;
- grassy or woody life forms;
- the flower has a complex structure with a double bloom and a four to five-petalled nimbus.
Comparative properties of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants
The table clearly shows the characteristic features of the two classes of the kingdom of higher plants: dicot and monocot.
The comparative characteristics of two classes of plants are demonstrated in the video:
Examples of monocot and dicot plants
The flora of the monocotyledonous angiosperms is represented by numerous families and is characterized by the biodiversity of the plant forms. Monocot plants include the following plant families: Liliaceae, Grain, onion, asparagus, orchid, sedge, Aroid, Palm etc.
May lilies of the valley - fragrant delicate plant with many snow-white bell-shaped flowers on a long stem. The plant can be found in shady, moist forests in spring. A specific Latin name for the flower was given by Carl Linnaeus, which translated means "lily of the valley". The breeders brought out the most beautiful garden species of the lily of the valley with tassels from numerous double flowers. There are even garden species of lilies of the valley with pink flowers.
Lily of the valley is a medicinal plant and is included in the pharmacopoeia of various countries. Herbal cardiac glycosides are used in the pharmaceutical production of cardiac drugs. The medicinal properties of the plant and the extraordinary beauty of the bouquets were the reason for the mass destruction of the plant. Lily of the valley was included in the Red Book in many regions of Russia.
Lily - Bulbous plant of unique beauty. The lily flower always attracts general attention with its exquisite shape and unusual color scheme of colors. Wild lilies grow in highland fields and meadows and create a fabulously unique sight while they are in bloom.
Onions from wild locusts are edible. In places with mass growth of plants, the local population still uses onions as food and medicine for toothache. Cultural hybrids of garden lilies take a leading place in flower beds.
Venus slipper - an endangered flower in many countries that is less and less common in forests. The flower of the plant has an unusual shape and a different coloring of the petals, perimeter, with a bright yellow lip and red splashes. Forest beauty can be found in the shady, damp corners of the forest. An old representative of the orchid family is valued for its decorative effect and is massively exterminated by humans.
Like all orchids, Venus Slipper is included in the protection books of many states. In Russia, this plant is listed in the Red Book and is under protection. Venus Slipper has long been used as a medicine in Tibetan medicine, and Siberian medicine men often used decoctions of the plant to treat nervous disorders and headaches.
wheat - the mistress of our fields, an annual grain harvest. Narrow lanceolate leaves protrude from the vagina on a long, hollow stem. A long inflorescence that ripens becomes a repository for whole grains, which are used to make flour and grains.
Spring or winter crops are grown almost everywhere in all regions of Russia, with the exception of the northern latitudes. In addition, many areas have their own varieties of wheat that are adapted for cultivation in this climate segment. In many countries, wheat is a crop of strategic importance and is exported.
arc - Vegetable harvest, without which not a single table can do. It is widespread on industrial plantations, in summer cottages, and is found in the wild in shady, moist forests across Russia.
An onion plant contains volatiles, vitamins, and other useful substances. Onions are used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes and are also a good honey plant during flowering.
The kingdom of the dicot flower is the most numerous and diverse, including more than 108,000 plant species. The largest families in this class: Rosaceae, Compound flowers, Nightshade, moth, Cruciferous vegetables etc.
White water lily - Decoration of our reservoirs. It has a second name - Nymphaeum and translated as "doll". The yellow “heart” of the flower seems to be burning in a frame of snow-white, delicate petals. Huge, glossy, dark green, leaf-shaped plates with a rounded shape float around the flower.
The leaves are attached to a massive rhizome containing starchy substances by long stems. Previously, flour and starch were made from the rhizomes of a white water lily. And from the fried seeds of a water plant, they made water lily coffee, which tasted like a natural drink.
Poppy - a beautiful flower with large petals. There are many types of poppies, differing in the size, shape, color, and size of the petals. Garden shapes are represented by beautiful views with large double flowers. The flower stalk contains milky juice. After flowering, a box-shaped fruit with numerous small seeds forms instead of the flower.
In the wild, poppies are common in the countries of Central Asia, forming unique scarlet curtains on vast steppe spaces. Many types of poppy seeds are used in the food and confectionery industries to make poppy seed oil and delicious baking toppings. Narcotic pain relievers are made from boxes of opium poppy seeds. In Russia, the cultivation of this variety of poppy has been banned since 2004.
Daisy - a tender, beautiful plant of small size that grows in gardens, parks and in the wild - on mountain slopes and large clearings in the central and southern parts of the European territory and in the Mediterranean. Garden daisies have multicolored terrycloth inflorescences and attract many insects.
mallow grows wild and cultivated in our gardens. An herbaceous plant with large flowers of various colors and shapes. Forest mallow can be found in our forests and in open clearings. Elegant terry mallow in all possible shades is grown on long stalks in the gardens. Forest mallow flower infusions and decoctions remove coughs and are widely used to treat catarrh and hoarse voice.
Apple tree - Representatives of dicotyledonous wood plants. It can be found in wild and cultural form everywhere except in the northern latitudes. The fragrant apple orchards attract many pollinating insects.
And ripe fruits are one of the most delicious fruit treats. Apples are fresh when they contain a storehouse of vitamins. Processed fruits are used to make juices, compotes, jams, lozenges. Decorative views of apple trees adorn our gardens and parks.
The bud of the dicotyledonous plants is strong and hardy. Then a strong, powerful one kernel root. With the subsequent growth of the plant, a stable, firm root system develops.
The root embryo of monocot representatives is poorly developed. During the growth of the plant, the main root does not gain strength and stops growing at a certain stage of development. But the additional and lateral roots gather strength and form fibrous root systemThe fibrous roots firmly cover the surface fertile soil layer and provide the plant with food and water.
Dicot plants in human activities
Dicot plants play an invaluable role in human life. We list some of the main uses of these plants.
- The flora of the dicotyledons and other plants is "Lungs" of the earth. Participating in photosynthesis leads to the healing of our planet. In addition, many plants produce unique substances - volatile, which can destroy many pathogens and viruses.
- Trees, bushes, grasses, flowering plants decorate our surroundings. Many of them are good honey plants.
- Food grade Dicot plants allow a person to get tasty, natural foods that are saturated with vitamins, minerals and plant fiber.
- Medicinal properties Plants have long been used by mankind to cure many diseases.
- Dicotyledonous plants are used as feed for herbivores and.
- Construction and fuel production You can't do without wood-based materials and wood waste.
Monocotyledonary root system
The root root is not characteristic of monocot plants. The video explains: what are the types of root systems in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous representatives and their role in plant life?
Dicotyledonous root system
The class of dicotyledonous plants formed a stable, strong root system during their emergence. boss kernel root Reach great depths in the soil in search of moisture and nourishment and show strong vitality.
From the bottom of the stem are often formed subordinate rootsthat increase the strength of the root system and, in the event of damage, disease or death, replace the main root and prevent the plant from dying off.
The lateral roots branch out from the core root, extend at an acute angle and spread in the ground to a distance of 60-70 cm. The side roots are thin and play a major role in the nutrition and water supply of the plant. This is how the core root system of the dicotyledonous plants was formed.
Careful attitude towards the plants that surround our life, it is necessary to bear all your life. In addition to the decorative and aesthetic value, "green friends" use carbon dioxide thanks to photosynthesis and enrich our planet with oxygen, give humanity a lot of nourishment and create a special peace and harmony on earth.
Why plants are needed, video:
Monocots and dicots are two classes of plants, the comparison of which occurs very often in the supervision of the study of the school biology course or in the USE assignments.
Monocot plants Is a class of angiosperms in which the seed germ consists of a cotyledon. Examples of such plants are wheat, lily, tulip, sedge, palm.
Dicot plants - This is one of the classes of angiosperms in which the seed germ consists of two cotyledons. Typical representatives of the class are sunflowers, oaks, coffee, birch, laurel, grapes, potatoes and buckwheat.
Monocot plants are considered to be the first angiosperms. Traces of representatives of all the main families of this class were found in the Cretaceous rocks 110 million years ago. In parallel with monocot plants on the ground, traces of the presence of dicot plants were found. Hence, in the world of botany, the discussion of which particular class became the ancestor of another has still not subsided.
The difference between dicots and monocots
The main feature of all monocot plants is the presence of a cotyledon in the embryo of the plant. This cotyledon is a heavily modified leaf. The main feature of all dicotyledonous plants is the presence of two cotyledons in the seed germ. They are opposite. The embryogenesis of a dicotyledonous plant is not associated with the leaf, but with the root and the shoot.
The flower of a monocotyledonous plant in most cases has three petals, three carpels, six stamens and six bracts. That is, the number of all flower elements is a multiple of three. The number of structural elements of a dicotyledonous plant is four or five.
The trunk of a monocot in most cases is not branched: it is soft and has no cambium. When such a stem is cut in half, it can be seen that the conductive rays inside it are arranged randomly and randomly. Often, the stem of a dicot is thickened or lignified due to the presence of educational tissue - cambium. Conducting rays in such a stem are arranged in a ring.
The leaves of monocotyledonous plants are often directly attached to the stem - without cuttings, stipules and other excesses. They are easily recognized by parallel or curved venation. The leaves of dicotyledonous plants have a reticular venation, as they are formed from a shoot of the apical system after the organism has germinated.
The root system of monocotyledonous plants is always fibrous, the radicle in it quickly withers away, giving priority to the palm when it comes to supplying the body with water and minerals for the extra roots. The root system of a dicot plant develops according to the type of pole - a main root and a certain number of side roots.
- The monocot embryo has one cotyledon, and the dicotyledon embryo has two cotyledons.
- The number of structural elements in the flower of a monocot plant is a multiple of three, in a two-part one - four and five.
- The trunk of a monocotyledonous plant is soft, dicotyledonous - firm, often woody. In the first embodiment the conductive beams are arranged randomly, in the second they are ring-shaped.
- The leaves of a monocot plant cover the stem and are attached to it. With dicotyledons, the leaves are attached to the petiole. In the first case the leaves have a parallel venation, in the second network.
- In monocot plants, the root system of the fibrous type is the trunk in dicots.
Dviskilčiai augalai statusas T sritis ekologija ir aplinkotyra apibrėžtis Augalai, kurių sėklą sudaro du skilčialapiai. atitikmenys: angl. dicot plant vok. two-lobed plants, frus. dicotyledonous plants ... Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
DOUBLE PLANTS - (Dicotyledons or Magnoliopsida), a class of angiosperms (flowering) plants characterized by an embryo with two cotyledons (hence the name). They differ from the monocotyledonous arrangement of the vascular bundles in 1 or 2 circles, the presence of cambium, cirrus ... ... Agricultural encyclopedic dictionary
dicotyledonous plants - (Dicotyledons or Magnoliopsida), a class of angiosperms (flowering) plants characterized by an embryo with two cotyledons (hence the name). They differ from the monocot arrangement of the vascular bundles in 1 or 2 circles, the presence of cambium, cirrus ... agriculture. Large encyclopedic dictionary
dicotyledonous plants - a class of angiosperms (Dicotyledoneae), the embryo of which has two cotyledons. They differ from monocotyledonous plants by the root-root system, complex leaves with reticular venation, the presence of cambium, four, five-membered flowers with ... ... plant anatomy and morphology
- (Lauraceae) are usually evergreen woody or, more rarely, shrubby dicotyledonous plants with leathery leaves. Typical genera Laurus (noble laurel), Cinnamomum, Persea, Ocotea, Sassafras and others. Known from the early Cretaceous period. Distributed mainly in ... ... Geological Encyclopedia
Magnolia flower ... Wikipedia
PLANTS - PLANTS. The relationships and differences between the two kingdoms of organic nature generally stem from the fact that, having shared roots and merging at the lower levels of organization, they have evolved in two different directions. The evolution of animals ... ... Great medical encyclopedia
- (Plantae or Vegetabilia), the kingdom of living organisms; autotrophic organisms, which are characterized by the ability to photosynthesize and the presence of dense cell walls, usually made of cellulose; Starch usually serves as a reserve substance. ... ... Biological Encyclopedic Dictionary
- (Dicotyledons) a subclass of the class of angiosperms or flowering plants. They are characterized by an embryo of 2 lobes, open conductive bundles in a circle in a stalk, development of the main root, reticular leaf venation, 5 ... ... geological encyclopedia
DOUBLE, a class of angiosperms in which the embryo has 2 cotyledons. Grasses, bushes, trees. Over 180,000 species in 350 360 families. In contrast to monocotyledon leaves usually with net venation. Between the forest ... ... Modern encyclopedia
- A series of tables. Biology. 6th grade. Plants, mushrooms, lichens. 14 tables + methodology. 14-sheet study album. Flower. Inflorescences. The seed. The fruit. Root escape and kidney. The stem. Leaf. Vegetative reproduction of plants. Bacteria, fungi. Seaweed. Weave. Mosses The Crowns. Horsetail. ...
- Flora of Eastern Europe. Volume 11. Angiosperms. Dicotyledon ,. The 11th volume of FLORA OF EASTERN EUROPE, like the previous one, is a continuation of the earlier published "Flora of the European Part of the USSR" and contains the characteristics of 37 families of higher plants with 222 ...
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