Who is Sub-Lieutenant Shivangi

Women in India - Women in India

Role of women in India
General statistics
Maternal mortality (per 100,000) 174
Women in parliament 14,5%
Women over 25 with a secondary school diploma 39% [M: 63.5%]
Women in the labor force 27.2% [M: 78.8%]
Gender inequality index -2017
value 0,524 (2017)
rank 127th of 160
Global Gender Gap Index
value 0,665 (2018)
rank 108 ..

The status of Women in india has changed a lot over the course of recorded Indian history. Their position in society deteriorated early in ancient India, particularly in the Indo-Aryan-speaking regions, and their subordination was confirmed well into the early modern period of India. Practices such as child murder of women, dowry, child marriage, and the taboo on widow remarriage that began in upper-caste Hindu society in northern India have been long-lasting and difficult to eradicate from all castes, classes, and even religions.

Improvement measures were enacted during the rule of the British East India Company (1757-1857) and the British Raj (1858-1947), including the Bengal Sati Regulation, 1829, Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856, Female Infanticide Prevention Act, 1870 and Age of Consent Act, 1891. Women's rights under the Constitution of India mainly include equality, dignity and freedom from discrimination. In addition, India has various laws that regulate women's rights.

Several women have served in various senior official positions in the Indian government, including the President of India, the Prime Minister of India, the Speaker of Lok Sabha. However, many women in India continue to face significant difficulties. Malnutrition rates are exceptionally high among teenage girls and pregnant and breastfeeding women in India, which has an impact on children's health. Violence against women, especially sexual violence, is a serious problem in India.

Women in India during British rule

During the British Raj, many reformers such as Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Jyotirao Phule fought for the improvement of women. Peary Charan Sarkar, a former student of the Hindu College in Calcutta and member of "Young Bengal", founded the first free school for girls in India in 1847 in Barasat, a suburb of Calcutta (later the school was called Kalikrishna Girls' High School) . While this might suggest that there was no positive British contribution during the Raj era, it is not entirely the case. Mission women like Martha Mault née Mead and their daughter Eliza Caldwell née Mault are rightly known as pioneers in the education and training of girls in South India. This practice initially met with local opposition because it contradicted tradition. Raja Rammohan Roy's efforts led to the abolition of Sati in 1829 under Governor General William Cavendish-Bentinck. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's crusade to improve the widow's situation led to the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856. Many reformers such as Pandita Ramabai also helped the women's cause.

Kittur Chennamma, queen of the princely state of Kittur in Karnataka, led an armed uprising against the British in response to the doctrine of decline. Rani Lakshmi Bai, Queen of Jhansi, led the Indian uprising of 1857 against the British. Today she is widely regarded as a national heroine. Begum Hazrat Mahal, the co-ruler of Awadh, was another ruler who led the 1857 rebellion. She refused to do business with the British and later retired to Nepal. The Begums of Bhopal were also considered notable rulers during this period. You were trained in martial arts. Chandramukhi Basu, Kadambini Ganguly, and Anandi Gopal Joshi were some of the earliest Indian women to graduate.

In 1917, the first women's delegation met with the Foreign Minister to demand the political rights of women supported by the Indian National Congress. The All India Women's Education Conference was held in Pune in 1927 and became a major organization in the movement for social change. In 1929, the Child Marriage Restriction Act was passed, setting fourteen as the minimum age for a girl to marry. Mahatma Gandhi, himself a child marriage victim at the age of thirteen, later urged people to boycott child marriages and urged young men to marry child widows.

Independent India

Female security index per state according to the Tata Strategic Management Group. Light green indicates the greatest security; yellow, medium certainty and light red, least certainty.

Women in India now participate fully in areas such as education, sport, politics, media, arts and culture, services, science and technology, etc. Indira Gandhi, who served as Indian Prime Minister for a total of fifteen years, is the longest serving Prime Minister in the World.

The Constitution of India guarantees all Indian women equality (Article 14), no discrimination by the state (Article 15 (1)), equal opportunities (Article 16), equal pay for equal work (Article 39 (d) and Article 42) allows the state to take special precautions in favor of women and children (Article 15 paragraph 3), renounces practices that undermine the dignity of women (Article 51 paragraph A letter e) and the state can also take precautions in order to protect women and children to ensure humane working conditions and to provide maternity assistance. (Article 42).

Feminist activism in India gained momentum in the late 1970s. One of the first national issues to bring women's groups together was the rape case in Mathura. The acquittal of police officers accused of raping a young girl Mathura in a police station sparked protests across the country in 1979–1980. The protest, widespread in the national media, forced the government to amend the Evidence Act, the Criminal Procedure Code and the Indian Criminal Code. and created a new offense, rape in custody. Female activists have also agreed on issues such as child murder of women, gender bias, women's health, women's safety and women's literacy.

Since alcoholism in India is often linked to violence against women, many women's groups in Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and other states have launched anti-alcohol campaigns. Many Indian Muslim women have questioned the fundamental leaders' interpretation of women's rights under Shariat law and criticized the Triple Talaq system (see below, around 2017).

Mary Roy won a 1986 Supreme Court lawsuit against the inheritance laws of her Keralite Syrian Christian community. The ruling ensured that Syrian Christian women are equal with their male siblings in terms of their ancestral property. Until then, their Syrian Christian community followed the provisions of the Travancore Succession Act of 1916 and the Cochin Succession Act of 1921, while elsewhere in India the same community followed the Indian Succession Act of 1925.

In the 1990s, grants from foreign donor organizations enabled the formation of new women-oriented NGOs. Self-help groups and NGOs such as the Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA) have played an important role in promoting women's rights in India. Many women have emerged as leaders of local movements. For example Medha Patkar from the Narmada Bachao Andolan.

In 1991, the Kerala Supreme Court restricted entry of women over the age of 10 and under 50 from the Sabarimala Shrine because they were menstrual. However, on September 28, 2018, the Supreme Court of India lifted the entry ban for women. Discrimination against women on all grounds, including religious grounds, is unconstitutional.

The Government of India declared 2001 the Year of Women's Empowerment ( Swashakti ). The national policy for the empowerment of women was adopted in 2001.

In 2006, the case of Imrana, a Muslim rape victim, was highlighted by the media. Imrana was raped by her father-in-law. The declaration by some Muslim clergymen that Imrana should marry her father-in-law sparked widespread protests, and eventually Imrana's father-in-law was sentenced to 10 years in prison. The ruling was welcomed by many women's groups and the All India Muslim Personal Law Board.

According to a 2011 survey by the Thomson Reuters Foundation, India was the "fourth most dangerous country" in the world for women. India was also ranked the worst country for women among the G20 countries. This report, however, has been criticized for promoting inaccurate perceptions. On March 9, 2010, the day after International Women's Day, Rajya Sabha passed the Women's Reservation Act, which requires 33% of seats in India's parliament and state legislatures to be reserved for women. In October 2017, another survey published by the Thomson Reuters Foundation found that Delhi is the fourth most dangerous mega-city (40 in total worldwide) for women and the world's worst mega-city for women in terms of sexual violence and the risk of rape and harassment.

The Sexual Harassment of Women in the Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redress) Act of 2013 is a law in India designed to protect women from sexual harassment in the workplace. The law came into force on December 9, 2013. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act of 2013 introduced changes to the Indian Criminal Code that make sexual harassment an explicit offense under Section 354A, which can be punished with imprisonment for up to three years and / or imprisonment. The change also introduced new sections where acts such as undressing a woman without consent, stalking, and sexual acts by persons in authority are considered criminal offenses. It also made acid attacks a special offense with a minimum of 10 years' imprisonment that could extend to life imprisonment and a fine.

In 2014, an Indian family court in Mumbai ruled that a husband who objects to his wife wearing a kurta and jeans and forcing her to wear a sari constituted cruelty inflicted by the husband and could be a cause of divorce. The wife was therefore divorced for cruelty within the meaning of Section 27 (1) (D) of the Special Marriage Act of 1954.

On August 22, 2017, the Supreme Court of India held the instant triple talaq ( talaq-e-biddat ) for unconstitutional.

In 2018, a Thomson Reuters Foundation poll named India the most dangerous country in the world for women due to the high risk of sexual violence. Although the National Commission for Women with the report the justification refused that the sample size for the number of people surveyed was small and could in no way reflect the state of affairs in a country with 1.3 billion inhabitants . The National Commission on Women (NCW) also noted that there could be no doubt that India is way ahead of a number of countries on women's rights. The survey was also rejected by the Center for the Study of Developing Societies on the grounds that there was a lack of transparency with regard to sample size and possible selection bias. The report was also rejected by the Indian government. Union Minister Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore criticized the Indian National Congress for using the poll to damage the reputation of the Modi government and for being based on "perception" and "far from solid facts or figures".

Also in 2018, the Supreme Court of India passed a law making it a crime for a man to have sex with a married woman without her husband's permission.

Before November 2018, women were prohibited from climbing Agasthyarkoodam. A court ruling lifted the ban.

Timeline of women's achievements in India

The steady change in the position of women can be highlighted by looking at what women have achieved in the country:

  • 1848: Savitribai Phule opens a school for girls in Pune, India with her husband Jyotirao Phule. Savitribai Phule became the first teacher in India.
  • 1879: John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune founded the Bethune School in 1849, which developed into Bethune College in 1879, becoming the first women's college in India.
  • 1883: Chandramukhi Basu and Kadambini Ganguly become the first women to graduate from India and the British Empire.
  • 1886: Kadambini Ganguly and Anandi Gopal Joshi are the first women from India to be trained in Western medicine.
  • 1898: Sister Nivedita's girls' school is inaugurated
  • 1905: Suzanne RD Tata is the first Indian woman to drive a car.
  • 1916: The first women's university, the SNDT Women's University, was founded on June 2, 1916 by the social reformer Dhondo Keshav Karve with only five students.
  • 1917: Annie Besant becomes the first female president of the Indian National Congress.
  • 1919: Pandita Ramabai was the first Indian woman to be awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind medal by the British Raj for her outstanding social service.
  • 1925: Sarojini Naidu becomes the first Indian-born President of the Indian National Congress.
  • 1927: The All India Women's Conference is founded.
  • 1936: Sarla Thakral is the first Indian woman to fly an airplane.
  • 1944: Asima Terjee became the first Indian woman to be awarded a Doctor of Science degree from an Indian university.
  • 1947: On August 15, 1947, after independence, Sarojini Naidu became Governor of the United Provinces, India's first female governor. On the same day, Amrit Kaur resigned as India's first female cabinet minister in the country's first cabinet.
  • After independence: Rukmini Devi Arundale was the first woman in Indian history to be appointed a Rajya Sabha member. She is considered the most important resuscitation artist in the Indian classical dance form Bharatanatyam due to her original "Sadhir" style, which prevails among the temple dancers of Devadasis. She also worked for the restoration of traditional Indian handicrafts.
  • 1951: Prem Mathur of Deccan Airways becomes the first female commercial pilot in India.
  • 1953: Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit becomes the first female president (and first Indian woman) of the United Nations General Assembly
  • 1959: Anna Chandy becomes the first Indian high court judge (Kerala High Court).
  • 1963: Sucheta Kriplani becomes the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, the first woman to hold this position in an Indian state.
  • 1966: Captain Durga Banerjee becomes the first Indian female pilot for the national airline Indian Airlines.
  • 1966: Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay wins the Ramon Magsaysay Award for church leadership.
  • 1966: Indira Gandhi becomes the first Indian Prime Minister
  • 1970: Kamaljit Sandhu is the first Indian woman to win gold at the Asian Games
  • 1972: Kiran Bedi becomes the first female recruit to join the Indian police force.
  • 1978: Sheila Sri Prakash is the first female entrepreneur to set up an architecture office on her own
  • 1979: Mother Teresa wins the Nobel Peace Prize, making her the first Indian citizen to do so.
  • 1984: On May 23, Bachendri Pal became the first Indian woman to climb Mount Everest.
  • 1986: Surekha Yadav becomes the first female train driver in Asia.
  • 1989: Judge M. Fathima Beevi becomes the first female judge on the Supreme Court of India.
  • 1991: Mumtaz M. Kazi is the first Asian woman to drive a diesel locomotive in September.
  • 1992: Asha Sinha becomes the first woman commander in the Paramilitary Forces of India when she is appointed Commander, Central Industrial Security Force Limited at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders.
  • 1992: Priya Jhingan joins the Indian Army as the first female cadet (later commissioned March 6, 1993).
  • 1999: On October 31, Sonia Gandhi became the first female opposition leader (India).
  • Karnam Malleswari, the first Indian woman to win an Olympic medal, a bronze medal at the Sydney Olympics in the 69 kg weight class.
  • 2007: On 25.In July Pratibha Patil became the first female president of India.
  • 2009: On June 4th, Meira Kumar became the first speaker for Lok Sabha.
  • 2011: On October 20th, Priyanka N. drove the first train of the Namma Metro and became the first Indian subway pilot.
  • 2011: Mitali Madhumita made history by becoming the first officer to win a Sena Medal for Gallantry.
  • 2014: 7 women ministers are appointed to the Modi ministry, 6 of whom are cabinet officials. This is the highest number of female cabinet ministers in any Indian government in history. Renowned ministries such as defense and foreign affairs are held by women ministers.
  • 2015: Sumita Bose is the first author and first woman to write the autism book in India. http://indiabookofrecords.in/first-book-on-autism/
  • 2016: J. Jayalalithaa became the first female prime minister in India to rule the state twice in a row by winning the legislative assembly elections.
  • 2016: J. Jayalalithaa is the first female Prime Minister in India to die in office on December 5, 2016.
  • 2017: On March 25, Tanushree Pareek became the first female combat officer appointed by the Border Security Force.
  • 2018: Archana Ramasundaram of 1980 Batch became the first woman to serve as General Director of Police for a paramilitary force as DG Sashastra Seema Bal.
  • 2018: In February, the 24-year-old flight officer Avani Chaturvedi of the Indian Air Force became the first Indian female fighter pilot to fly alone. She flew a MiG-21 Bison, a jet aircraft with the highest registered landing and take-off speed in the world.
  • 2019: On December 2, 2019, Lieutenant Shivangi became the first female pilot in the Indian Navy.

politics

India has one of the most women politicians in the world. Women held high offices in India, including president, prime minister, Lok Sabha spokeswoman and opposition leader. The Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tripura have introduced a 50% reservation for women in PRIs. The majority of the candidates in these panchayats are women. In 2015, 100% of the elected members in Kodassery Panchayat in Kerala are women. As of 2020, there are currently 16 female prime ministers in India.

As of 2018, 12 out of 29 states and the Delhi union area had at least one female prime minister.

Culture

The status of women in India is strongly related to family relationships. In India the family is considered crucial and in most parts of the country the family unit is patrilineal. Families tend to span generations and the bride moves to live with her in-laws. Families are usually hierarchical, with the elders having authority over the younger generations and men over women. The vast majority of marriages are monogamous (one husband and one wife), but both polygyny and polyandry in India have a tradition among some populations in India. Weddings in India can be very expensive. Most marriages in India are arranged.

In terms of clothing, women across India wear a sari (a long piece of cloth draped around the body) and salwar kameez. A Bindi belongs to a woman's make-up. Despite popular belief, the bindi on the forehead does not mean marital status; The Sindoor does, however.

Rangoli (or Kolam) is a traditional art that is very popular with Indian women.

In 1991, the Kerala Supreme Court restricted entry of women over the age of 10 and under 50 from the Sabarimala Shrine because they were menstrual. On September 28, 2018, the Supreme Court of India lifted the entry ban for women. Discrimination against women on all grounds, including religious grounds, is unconstitutional.

Military and law enforcement

  • An Indian Army officer briefs Russian soldiers during a joint exercise in 2015.

The Indian Armed Forces began recruiting women into non-medical positions in 1992. The Indian Army began introducing women officers in 1992. The Border Security Force (BSF) began recruiting female officers in 2013. On March 25, 2017, Tanushree Pareek became the first female combat officer on behalf of the BSF.

On October 24, 2015, the Indian government announced that women could be used as fighter pilots in the Indian Air Force (IAF), having previously only been allowed to fly transport planes and helicopters. The decision means that women are now eligible for any role in the IAF. In 2016, India announced the decision to allow women to take on combat roles in all areas of its army and navy.

As of 2014, women made up 3% of the Indian Army personnel, 2.8% of the Navy and 8.5% of the Air Force personnel. As of 2016, women made up 5% of all active and reserved personnel in the Indian Armed Forces.

In 1972, Kiran Bedi became the First Lady Indian Police Service Officer and was the only woman in a group of 80 IPS officers. She joined the AGMUT squad. In 1992 Asha Sinha became the first woman commander in the Paramilitary Forces of India in 1982 Batch IPS officer when she was posted, as commander, to Central Industrial Security Force Limited at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders. Kanchan Chaudhary Bhattacharya, Batch's second Indian IPS officer in 1973, became the first female director general of a state police force in India when she was appointed DGP of the Uttarakhand Police Force. In 2018, an IPS officer, Archana Ramasundram from 1980 Batch, became the first woman police director general of a paramilitary force as GD Sashastra Seema Bal. In March 2018, the Delhi police announced that they would be adding women to their SWAT team.

On February 17, 2020, the Supreme Court of India declared that female officers in the Indian Army can be given positions of command that are equal to male officers. The court said the government's arguments against them were discriminatory, disturbing and stereotypical. The court also said that a standing commission should be provided for all female civil servants regardless of their years of service. The government had previously said that female commanders would not be acceptable for some troops.

Education and economic development

According to data from 1992 to 1993, only 9.2% of households in India were female-headed. However, it has been found that approximately 35% of households below the poverty line are women.

education

Women attend an adult literacy class in Thiruputkuzhi, Tamil Nadu state. The overall female literacy rate in the state in 2011 was 73.44%. It has increased by 9% over the past decade.

Although it is increasing rapidly, the literacy rate of women in India is lower than that of men. Far fewer girls than boys are enrolled in school and many girls drop out of school. In urban India, girls are almost on par with boys in terms of education. In rural India, however, girls are still less educated than boys. According to the 1997 National Sample Survey Data, only the states of Kerala and Mizoram have approached universal literacy for women. According to scientists, literacy is the main factor in improving the social and economic status of women in Kerala.

Under the Non-Formal Education (NFE) program, approximately 40% of NFE centers in states and 10% of centers in UTs are reserved for women only. By 2000, approximately 300,000 NFE centers were caring for approximately 7.42 million children. About 120,000 NFE centers were exclusively for girls.

According to a 1998 report by the U.S. Department of Commerce, the main barriers to women's education in India are inadequate school facilities (e.g. sanitation), lack of teachers, and gender bias in the curriculum (female characters are portrayed as weak and helpless) .

The literacy rate is lower for women than for men: the literacy rate is 60.6% for women and 81.3% for men. However, the 2011 census showed decadal literacy growth of 9.2% over the period 2001-2011, slower than the growth over the past decade. There are large gender differences in the literacy rate in India: the effective literacy rate (from 7 years of age) in 2011 was 82.14% for men and 65.46% for women. (Population aged 15 and over, 2015 data).

Employee participation

A woman in one Aadhaar Working center in India.

Contrary to popular belief, a large percentage of women in India are actively involved in traditional and non-traditional work. National data collection agencies accept that statistics seriously underestimate the contribution of women as workers. However, there are far fewer women than men in the paid workforce. In urban India, women make up an impressive number of the workforce. In the software industry, for example, 30% of the workforce is female.

In rural India in agriculture and related industries, women make up 89.5% of the workforce. In total agricultural production, the average contribution made by women is estimated at 55% to 66% of total labor. According to a 1991 World Bank report, women accounted for 94% of total dairy employment in India.

Women make up 51% of total employment in forest-based small businesses.

India ranks above the world average for women in leadership positions.

Gender pay gap

In 2017, a study by the Monster Salary Index (MSI) found that the overall gender pay gap in India was 20 percent. It turned out that the gap was closer in the first few years of experience.