What are the common abbreviations for Philadelphia

Records technical terms and abbreviations

The most widely used vinyl terms

The following overview is a list of internationally used abbreviations for the definition of records in terms of format, size (diameter), playing time, color arrangement and whatever else there is. In addition, there are the general abbreviations for the individual condition assessments for new or used records.

Record formats and colors

7 "(7inch / 7-inch) vinyl single
The "small" 17 cm single record in 7 inch format has a title on each side as standard. It had its golden days in the 1960s to 1980s. In the 50s and 60s, the frequency of their use in the legendary jukeboxes of pubs and cafes was used as the basis for creating the single charts of that time.

10 "(10inch / 10 inch) vinyl single
The "medium-sized" 25 cm single / EP / LP record in 10 inch format mostly comes from the 50s and 60s. The more or less unsuccessful "interim solution" never really caught on in the market. Today, individual specimens are a sought-after collector's item!

12 "(12inch / 12 inch) maxi vinyl single
The "big" vinyl single started in Germany in the late 1970s as a so-called super sound single. On the one hand it offered a considerably better sound than the "small" single, on the other hand it made it possible for music lovers to listen to long disco hits of up to 12 minutes in private without having to change records. In the 80s, maxi singles were increasingly used to publish several remixes of a song. Many of these rare remixes are still only available on these original pressings!

LP (12 "/ 12inch / 12 inch)
The "big" normal long-playing record in the conventional 12inch format. It is the classic image of an LP or an album. The latter is the case if it has a hinged cover. The LP format is also used in the production of samplers ("hit compilations").

PD (Picture Disc)
The Picture-Disc Vinyl-Record comes optically in the form of an "image disc". It mostly appears as a collector's item in small editions. They are available in all three format sizes and in rare cases even as a double single or double album.

PDS (Picture Disc Shape)
The picture disc shape record is even more extravagant. It is not only printed like the picture plate, but also has an extravagant format (triangular, rectangular, with jagged, heart-shaped etc.). It can be played back normally on any turntable, but above all it has the status of an unplayed collector's item.

Playing time, scope and equipment of records

EP (Extended Play)
In terms of playing time, a kind of intermediate between the two single formats. A 7 inch single with four songs counts as an EP as well as a 12 inch maxi single with 4 (or more) music tracks. EP records are relatively rare, as they were mostly only released as special editions for marketing reasons. One or the other of them can be a sought-after collector's item.

LP (long-play record / long-play)
The conventional classic long-playing record, which usually allows a playing time of up to 20 minutes per side. An LP that is not completely "filled" in terms of content and only offers 10 to 12 minutes of music per side is often referred to as a "mini LP".

DLP / 2-LP (double long-playing record)
2 LPS that belong together are referred to as double LP or double album. These are mostly two records that are in a common (usually foldable) cover. Every now and then (mostly in the 1970s) 3-LP albums were also released. These were mostly opulent live recordings of well-known rock acts or best-of releases.

LP box

Often a cardboard box in a slightly larger LP format that contains several long-playing records. They are available as a collection box from an artist or often from samplers to summarize several years or decades. Most LP boxes are equipped with 3-5 LPS. They are also available with 10 or more records. They are currently used more and more for re-issues of old vinyl classics. The relatively rare first publications from the 60s to 80s are coveted collector's items.

The nature of records

OFK (surface scratches)
A visually striking, but acoustically inaudible scratch that is only present on the record surface. Depending on the visual conspicuousness (width and length), surface scratches are also referred to as streaks or hairlines. They hardly reduce the acoustic quality of a record at all.

K (scratches)
An impairment that is just as visible as it is audible and which reports acoustically "to speak" with every turn. A deep scratch is definitely not removable and reduces the listening pleasure (at least with the affected song) and the overall value of the record.

Wave / bump
Careless storage of records can warp and create an unevenness on the surface, which can severely impair their use. They then have - mostly starting from the edge - a kind of bump or wave which, in the worst case, can cause the needle to jump or produce a lyre-like sound. So-called automatic ironing machines are used to bring affected panels back into shape. These are supposed to "flatten" the damaged specimens by adding heat. A (mostly expensive) process that is only worthwhile - if at all - with very rare discs.

SOL (Sticker On Label)
A sticker applied to the label of the record. Most of the time it is an archive number or an address label from a private collection that was affixed by the (original) owner. In very rare cases there are also stickers from record companies that turn a normal LP into a "Promo LP" for sampling at magazines or radio stations.

WOL (Writing On Label)
A manually applied inscription on the label. Mostly a name, an abbreviation or a number. Often an archive number for long-playing records. In the case of maxi singles from the dance and disco sector, bpm ("beats-per-minute") information can often be found on the label.

Special features of the record cover

BC / PC (picture cover / picture cover)
The traditional colorful record cover of a vinyl single, maxi single and long-playing record. The LPS and the maxi singles of the second generation (from the early 80s) usually have a stable outer cover made of hard cardboard and an inner sleeve. Most of the first generation maxi singles (from the late 1970s), like the 7-inch singles, were delivered in a simple, thin paper cover. While the singles got along well with the paper covers, the maxi singles had problems with them from the start. They almost always tore open on the sides and buckled very quickly, which was not particularly visually appealing.

FOC / Gat (Fold Out Cover / Gatefold Cover)
The abbreviation FOC stands for the term Fold Out Cover and indicates a "fold-out cover". This type of cover appeared from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s, mostly on LP releases. Most of them were double albums. But there were also many artists who wanted their individual LPs to be accompanied by an opulent, hinged cover for their audio art.

The abbreviation Gat stands for the term gatefold cover. These covers offer the same properties as the fold-oot covers. This designation has become increasingly popular in recent years in the field of current vinyl reprints and reprints of the originals. The FOC term is used in our shop, matching the original records from the 1960s to 1980s, which we mainly have on offer. In very rare cases there are also singles and maxi singles with a cover that can be opened. These are mostly special pressings for collectors, which mainly come from England and were published in the 80s.

OIS (Original Inner Sleeve)
The original inner cover (also called inner cover) was often provided with lyrics, photos or other information about the artist from the late 1970s. Before that, they almost always served only as advertising space for other record releases by the record company, or they were completely neutral white. A missing reference to an original inner cover (OIS) in our descriptions of the condition does not mean that it has been lost. In such a case, the original inner cover was correspondingly neutral.

BL (booklet)
What was standard for CDs for a long time was an absolute rarity for LP releases. An LP booklet is a kind of booklet accompanying the LP with an average of 8 to 32 pages. Such a booklet usually has a maximum size of 30 x 30 cm, which means that it fits perfectly into the cover. Booklets that are installed directly in the cover by gluing or stapling are even rarer.

RW (Ring Wear)
A very ugly, but unfortunately unavoidable optical effect with many covers. The inner and outer outline of the record shimmers through the cover. The cover does not have to be damaged by this, it just looks a bit "worn out".

LC (hole cover)
The cover has a "hole" in the middle in label size. These record covers used to be used extensively by machine operators for the singles who used them to fill up the jukeboxes. They are available in monochrome, colored and also with company-internal advertising information. Many maxi singles from the house and techno genre also use hole covers.

FLC (company hole cover)
Original covers of single records and sometimes also of maxi singles that only bear the logo of the record company, but do not show any direct reference to the record.

NC (neutral cover)
One-colored (mostly white) neutral record cover without any lettering. This type of cover was mainly used from the late 1980s until well into the 2000s for maxi singles that were specially produced for use in clubs.

GIMMIX cover
Term for a particularly artistically designed or very unusual (e.g. a multiple fold-open) record cover.

WOC (Writing On Cover)
In such a case there is manually applied writing on the record cover. Very often it is a name, an abbreviation or a small archive number.

STOC (STamp On Cover)
A stamp print on the cover of the record. Very often it is the name of the former owner. Every now and then, however, there is also an article number (e.g. for records from radio archives).

TOC (Tape On Cover)
The totally unsuccessful attempt to repair a record cover by attaching a strip of tape. Either the tape is still there or it has been removed and left optical traces or small damage on the cover directly.

CO (cut-out or cut-off)
In the case of a cut-out, the record cover (single, maxi or LP) is either slightly incised on the side edge or it has a small perforation in a cover corner. With vinyl singles, small perforations can sometimes also be made in the middle. The cut-off is characterized by a missing corner of the record cover (almost always only in the LP area). At that time, this deliberate reduction in value symbolized the affected panels as cheap imported goods (mostly cut-off) or as rejected surplus items (almost always cut-out).


More abbreviations for vinyl records

RI / RE (RE issue)
This abbreviation indicates that the copy is an official reprint (re-publication) of the first edition. There have been several reprints of very successful records.

V.A. (Various Artists)
An international abbreviation that indicates that different artists are represented on the record. This is mostly the case with a hit sampler, a song compilation or a soundtrack (OST). In German productions, the title is usually just "Various Interpreten" or "German Stars".

OST (Original Sound Track)
Records with this addition are the official companion LP for a movie, a TV series or a musical.

CE / CSA (Club Edition / Club special edition)
Records with this information are special pressings of conventional LPS, which have been pressed in small editions especially for book clubs. They have a different product number than the original pressing and sometimes a different record cover. There are also club editions that were made exclusively for book clubs and were not available in normal record stores.