The majority of the Urartus population was Armenian

Armenians

Armenians (poor. Hajk)

1 historical sketch

The occurrence of the Armenian diaspora in Asia Minor, Eastern Europe, the North Caucasus and later also in Western Europe, India, North and South America was related to the repeated change in the political situation of the areas inhabited by the A.n over the centuries. The population movements of the A. have at the latest by the end of the 7th century BC. Started when the kingdom of Urartu fell victim to constant internal struggles. The migration of some important groups of people beyond the historical borders of the A. was already intensified at the beginning of the year 387, when Armenia was divided between Persia and the Roman Empire. New waves of the exodus occurred after 428 (from that year Armenia was under the control of the so-called Marzapane, representatives of the Persian kings, for two centuries). In the 7th century Armenia came under the power of the Arabs. In the middle of the 10th century the Byzantines occupied several areas in southern Lesser Armenia, in the 11th century the threat from the Seljuks increased. The repeated attacks by the Byzantines and the Seljuks caused a large number of people to flee to Eastern Europe. In the 12th century, Lesser Armenia (Latin: Armenia Minor) and Cilicia, which was inhabited by many A.n, were consolidated. Many A. fled Cilicia when it was devastated by the Mamelukes (1375). The waves of emigration of A. from Asia Minor and Anatolia to Eastern Europe were also caused by political, religious and economic discrimination to which A. were exposed by the Byzantine authorities. However, a considerable part of the A. migrated during the administration of Armenia by the Tatars (13th century) and as a result of the robberies by the Turkmen hordes Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. A new wave of Armenian refugees followed after the fall of Constantinople (1453). In the 17th to 18th centuries, A.'s emigration from Persia also intensified. At the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century and during the war years, the Armenian diaspora grew due to the refugees from the Ottoman Empire. In the second half of the 20th century there were further population movements of the A., v. a. from Middle East and Eastern Europe to America and Western Europe. The last significant emigration of the A. from the original residential areas took place in the late 1980s and early 1990s; these coincided with the initiation of conflicts between different ethnic groups in Nagorno-Karabakh, Georgia and in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. In 1994 the Republic of Armenia took in around 304,000 Armenian refugees from various conflict zones in the former USSR. On the other hand, around 800,000 to 1 million people left the Republic of Armenia for economic reasons in the 1990s. The majority of emigrants settled in the southern areas of the Russian Federation.

The Armenian diaspora (›Spiurk‹) consists of: 1) the “inner” diaspora and 2) the “outer” diaspora. The former includes the A. in the former Soviet republics, v. a. Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan (or Nagorno-Karabakh). The A. of the "inner" diaspora still have a very close relationship with the Republic of Armenia. The "outer" diaspora consists of the Armenian communities in the countries of Europe, North and South America, the Middle East, Asia Minor and Central Asia and Australia. The number of A. in the diaspora (1989) was estimated as follows: Russia: 500,000; Georgia: 500,000; other former Soviet republics: 175,000; USA and Canada: 1 million; Argentina: 80,000, rest of South America: 30,000; Western Europe: 400,000, including France: 300,000; Eastern Europe: 55,000, including Greece, Bulgaria and Romania: 40,000; Middle East (Lebanon, Cyprus, Syria, Iraq, Egypt): 450,000; Turkey: 60,000; Iran: 150,000; Far East: 15,000; Australia: 30,000; other countries: 10,000. For the Armenian diaspora, this amounts to around 3.755 million people.

2 The cultural heritage of the Armenian diaspora

A. have left an extraordinary number of ancient manuscripts in world culture, which cover all areas of knowledge: history, philosophy, law, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, music. Currently over 10,000 Armenian manuscripts are preserved in various museums and libraries around the world. Armenian culture and science developed mainly in the diaspora. The first book in the Armenian language (›Parzatumar‹) was printed in Venice (1512); the first Armenian world map appeared in Amsterdam (1694); the first newspaper (›Arevelian Tsanutsmants‹) was published in Astrakhan in 1815; in the 19th century a large part of the press appeared in Armenian expression outside of historical Armenia (especially in Turkey, Russia and Italy). From the 16th to the 18th century, Armenian printers were active in Constantinople, Rome, Lemberg, Milan, Paris, Leipzig, London, Madras and Edirne.

The first significant Pan-Armenian political movement dated towards the end of the 19th century and was linked to the activities of the Armenian national delegations. These played a very important role at the Berlin Peace Congress (1878), after the end of the Balkan Wars (1912–13) and the First World War (1914–18). The most important Pan-Armenian organizations are: ›Armjanskij Vseobščij Blagotvoritlnyj Sojuz‹, ›Asamblea Interinstitucional Armenia‹, ›Armenian Assambly of America‹, ›Armenian National Committee‹, ›Armenian Relief Society‹, ›Sojuz Armjan Rossii‹, ›Armenian Revolutionary Federation‹, ›Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia‹.

3 Religious Life in the Diaspora

The Armenian Church consists of two Catholics (Ečmiadzin / Edschmiadzin and Sis, based in Anthelyās / Antélias, Lebanon) and two patriarchates (Jerusalem and Constantinople). The Catholic of Ečmiadzin (the Holy See) is ranked higher than that of Sis (Cilicia). From a canonical point of view, the Jerusalem and Constantinople Patriarchates are subordinate to the Catholic of Ečmiadzin and are not allowed to ordain bishops.

The Ečmiadzin Catholic includes the Armenian Churches in the Republic of Armenia, the former USSR, Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, Australia and the so-called “Armenian Church of America” (USA and Canada). The jurisdiction of the Catholic of Sis includes the dioceses in Lebanon, Syria, Cyprus, Greece, Kuwait, Iran and some Armenian communities in Canada and the USA. The Jerusalem Patriarchate includes the A. in Israel and Jordan, while the Constantinople Patriarchate only looks after the faithful in Turkey.

During the crusades, a part of the church hierarchy of A. in Cilicia maintained close contacts with the papacy. In 1198 an agreement was signed with Rome, which was confirmed at the councils of the Armenian Church of Sis (1307) and Adana (1316/17). The first Catholic communities of A. were founded in the north-west of the country and in Georgia in the 15th century. The Armenian Church was represented at the Council of Florence. In the 17th century, most of the Polish A. came under the jurisdiction of Rome, whereby they were allowed to keep their old liturgical language and their rite. A Catholic Archdiocese of A. existed in Lviv until 1945. The Pope's supremacy was also accepted by the Mechitarists at the beginning of the 17th century. The name of this order is related to the monk Mchitar Sebastaci (1676–1749), who founded an Armenian monastery on the island of San Lazzaro. Old Armenian manuscripts were collected there and important studies on the Armenian language and literature were written. The Viennese branch of the mechitarists has developed into the most important center for studying the past of A. The mechitarists have maintained their cultural commitment to this day. The Catholic community of A. has around 100,000 members. The head of the Catholic Uniate Church is the Patriarch (with the seat in Beirut), who is elected by the episcopal synod and confirmed by the Pope. The Armenian Catholic Uniate Church today consists of four archbishoprics (Beirut, Istanbul, Baghdad, Halab) and three dioceses (Alexandria, Isfahan and Kamechlié).

There are also a small number of Protestants among the A.n. Its story began in 1831 when American missionaries were given the right to open religious schools and theological seminaries on Turkish soil by virtue of a treaty between Turkey and the USA. A.'s first Protestant church was consecrated in 1846. In 1852 a translation of the Bible into modern Armenian was published, and a Bible in Turkish was in circulation for the linguistically assimilated A. Many religious texts and a Protestant newspaper were also published. Before the First World War there were 137 churches and 179 Protestant pastors in Turkey. The number of believers in the Evangelical Church of A. is estimated at around 35,000. The church consists of the Union of the Armenian Evangelical Churches of Central Asia, the Union of the Armenian Evangelical Churches of France and the Union of the Armenian Evangelical Churches of North America. The majority of the Protestant A. live in the USA.

There are also small Muslim communities of A.n. in Turkey, the Middle East, and Central Asia.

4 The Armenians in the Middle East, Central Asia and Eastern Europe

4.1 Syria, Lebanon and Iran

In the 20th century, most of the Armenian communities in the Middle East were registered in Syria and Lebanon. In Syria, the number of A. grew considerably after the First World War due to the wave of refugees from Turkey. In the interwar period, over half of the Syrian A. lived in Halab. There were also important communities in Damascus, Hama, Homs and Lataqiyyah. After the establishment of the Syrian-Egyptian Union (1958), the Syrian A. were exposed to reprisals in response to the pro-Western activities of the “Armenian Revolutionary Federation”. However, after Hafiz al-Asad came to power, the situation has improved. The number of Armenian communities in Lebanon also increased after the First World War. Before 1975 about 200,000 A. lived there, most of them in the capital Beirut. In Iran and Lebanon, the A. are politically recognized and represented in parliament. Almost all A. in the Middle East live in cities.

4.2 Turkey

In the Ottoman Empire, the A. formed their own religious administrative unit (›milet‹). In 1854 about 2.4 million A. were counted in the Ottoman Empire. They represented the ethnic majority in the provinces of Erzurum and Kurdistan. In 1882 the statistics indicated about 2.66 million A. in the Ottoman Empire (according to data from the Constantinople Patriarchate), including 1.63 million distributed in six “Armenian” provinces (the Wilajet Sivas, Mamuret-el-Aziz / Elâzığ, Erzurum, Diyarbakır, Bitlis and Van). According to recent statistics from the Constantinople Patriarchate (1912), around 2.1 million A.

Relations between the Armenian population and the Ottoman authorities deteriorated steadily from the middle of the 19th century. Encouraged by the upswing in Russia in Eastern Europe and in the Caucasus, the national emancipation movement of A. became very active in the Ottoman Empire. In the 1890s, paramilitary groups of the A. murdered several Ottoman high officials. After the suppression of the Sassun uprising (1894), several massacres against A. took place throughout the Ottoman Empire (October to December 1895). Around 300,000 people were killed. The acts of violence against the Armenian civilian population continued after the so-called revolution of the Young Turks (1908). In 1909 (April 1–4; April 12–14) there was a mass murder in Vilayet Adana, killing around 20,000 people. In 1909 another 10,000 victims died in other regions of historic Cilicia.

The unimaginable drama of A. in the Ottoman Empire only came in the years of the First World War. Even if a part of A. was loyal to the Turkish state - about 250,000 A. were active in the Turkish army - the Turkish authorities accused A. of betraying the interests of the Reich. The accusation came as a result of some revolts that took place mainly in Cilicia and the preparation of Armenian volunteer troops from Turkey, which was favored by the Russians. Originally, the Turkish authorities decided to disarm the Armenian fighters and use them in labor battalions. For many, this meant death. On April 24, 1915, over 250 and then up to 800 intellectuals were arrested in Constantinople, who were later exiled to the provinces of Ayaş and Çankırı and finally killed. This was followed by deportations to the desert of northern Syria: v. a. the A. from the compact Armenian communities were deported. Many died of hunger and thirst along the way. Those who arrived at their destination were simply fenced in in the open air, exposed to the diseases, hunger and moods of the Turkish soldiers. Only a small number of the prisoners were able to escape the camps. Also during the Turkish offensive in the Caucasus (summer / autumn 1918) there were massacres of the A.n. Of the more than 2 million people who had lived in Turkey up to the First World War, only a few tens of thousands remained. The total number of victims was estimated at 1.5 million. The first years after the introduction of the republican system in Turkey were still accompanied by repression against the A., especially since the aim was to restore Turkish sovereignty over some territories in the east and west. The massacres during the war and massive emigration led to a drastic reduction in the number of Turkish A. In the Republic of Armenia and the diaspora, April 24 is celebrated as a day of remembrance for the victims of the genocide, which several states and international organizations have officially recognized .

The number of A. in six Wilajet of Eastern Turkey, 1913 and 1927:

Wilajet 1913 1927
Erzurum 215.000 14
Sivas 165.000 0
Diyarbakır 105.000 955
Kharput 168.000 2299
Bitlis 180.000 285
Van 185.000 0
A total of 1.018.000 2653

Lussac G. 1999: Le génocide des arméniens. Research on the transmission et les ruptures de filiations. Thèse de doctorat. Paris, 95.

In the interwar period, the Armenian community in Turkey numbered around 80,000 people. During the Second World War, the A. in Turkey were once again exposed to (mainly economic) pressure from the authorities. After 1945, the Armenian diaspora in Turkey v. a. Istanbul and its surroundings. According to data from the 1960 census, there were 52,756 people with Armenian as their mother tongue, including 37,280 in Istanbul, 10,232 in Mardin Province, 1204 in the Kastamonu area and 565 in Sivas in Turkey. Today up to 70,000 A. live in Turkey. There are Armenian schools and cultural associations in Istanbul.

4.3 Greece and Cyprus

Greece was one of the countries that accepted Armenian refugees from Turkey during World War I and after. Of the approximately 45,000 Armenian refugees, however, only a small number stayed in Greece, with the majority soon afterwards emigrating to France, the USA or Central Asian countries. Today around 15,000 A. live in Greece (in Athens, Piraeus, Thessaloniki, Neos Kosmos, Vironas, Nikea, Peristeri, Kavala, Xanthī, Komotini). The Armenian community in Cyprus numbers around 2500 people (Nicosia, Larnaka, Limassol).

4.3.1 Georgia

The Armenian community in present-day Georgia was founded around the middle of the 1st millennium BC. Founded. In the 7th century the A. formed a considerable part of the population of Tbilisi. In the 14th to 18th centuries, important groups of A.n from Persia and the Ottoman Empire were added. During the Russo-Turkish and Russo-Persian Wars in the 19th century and during the First World War, the number of A. in Georgia increased considerably. Between 1897 and 1926 the A. community in Georgia grew from approx. 177,000 to approx. 307,000 people.

The Armenian elite occupied important positions in Georgia's political life early on. In the Middle Ages, the Armenian traders were granted extensive rights. The first political organizations of the A. were founded on Georgian soil (“Tbilisi Workers Union”; “Armenian Social Democratic Union”; the parties ›Ramkavar‹, ›Daschnakcucjun‹ and ›Gntschak‹). In the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century there were several cultural and charitable associations of A.

The Armenian diaspora in Georgia is one of the most important. In 1989 there lived 437,211 A. (8.09% of the total population of Georgia): approx. 153,000 in Tbilisi, approx. 124,000 in South Georgia, approx. 73,000 in Abkhazia. After 1989 the number of A. in Georgia decreased due to emigration (to the Republic of Armenia, Russia, USA). In 2003 Georgia had 133 Armenian schools, a large circulation newspaper (›Vrastan‹) and several local newspapers. There is a Faculty of Armenian Philology at the Sulhan-Saba Orbeliani University of Education in Tbilisi. Also in Tbilisi there is the Armenian Theater P. Adamian and the religious center, the Surb Gevorg Church. Several cultural and charitable organizations of A. are active in Georgia ("Union of Armenians of Georgia", "Union of Armenian Youth of Georgia› Veracnund ‹", "Association of Armenian Writers of Georgia› Vernatun ‹").

4.4 Russian Federation

The presence of A. on the present territory of the Russian Federation - in the Volga region and in the North Caucasus - in the 1st millennium BC. Be backdated.The Armenian Community of Russia was v. a. stronger since the middle of the 17th century when many Armenian traders and craftsmen settled in Russian cities. Since then, Russia has been an important base for the A. for their contacts with the West. Until 1917 the policy of the Russian authorities towards the A. was volatile. A.'s situation in the tsarist empire deteriorated considerably as a result of the assassination attempt on tsar Aleksandr II (1881). In 1897, teaching in Armenian was completely abolished and in 1903 the owners of the Armenian Church came under state control. After 1912, several representatives of the A.'s national emancipation movement were deported to Siberia. Many A. became members of the Bolsheviks and took part in the events of 1917 and in the civil war. In the USSR, A. living outside the SSR Armenia were subjected to an intensive process of russification. The A. in Russia have adopted many elements of everyday Russian life. In 2002, around 1,130,200 A. (as the fifth largest minority after the Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvashes and Chechens) lived in the Russian Federation, including around 805,000 in the cities. The traditions and the loyalty to the Armenian language were preserved before Christ. a. in the areas with a compact Armenian population (Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar and Stavropolʹ). The main political and cultural organizations of A. in the Russian Federation are located in Moscow.

The first a. Groups in the 9th / 10th In the 13th century there were Armenian colonies in several cities that had been founded by the Tatars along the Volga. After the dissolution of the Golden Horde and the emergence of the Astrakhan Khanate, Armenian traders and craftsmen came to the capital.After the annexation of Astrakhan by Russia (1556) and the shift of the fortress and the city from the right to the left bank of the Volga (1558), the population grew Number of A. considerable. In 1746 the A. in Astrakhan received various trading and administrative privileges from the Russian authorities. The legal work ›Sudebnik astrahanskih armjan‹, which was written in Astrakhan in the middle of the 18th century, served for a long time as a model and source for the legal books of several Armenian communities in Eastern Europe. Astrakhan also played an important role in the cultural life and science of the Armenian diaspora. Since 1795 there was one of the most important printing works of the A., in which religious and secular literature was printed for the communities from Russia, Iran and Turkey. From the middle of the 14th century, Kazan developed into the largest city in the Volga region. The number of A. in Kazan grew accordingly, v. a. During the 18th century, the first Russian Institute for Armenian Philology was established at the University of Kazan.

The first waves of immigration by the A. to the North Caucasus date back to the 11th and 12th centuries. The present-day Armenian population in the region comes from later immigrants (18th to 19th centuries). a. from the successors of Armenian communities from Turkey and Persia. Initially, the Iranian A. settled mainly along the Terek River. In the 1830s, those who arrived from Persia preferred the North Caucasus. The size of the Armenian population in the North Caucasus grew with the later waves of emigration from Persia (late 18th / early 19th century). Until the beginning of the 20th century, the A. in the North Caucasus v. a. employed in the food and wine industries.

Another important group of A.n in the North Caucasus are the so-called Mountain Menians or the Cherkess Armenians. These came either from Cilicia (14th century) or from the Crimea (late 15th century). The Armenian community in Circassia increased in number due to immigrants from Crimea, Armenia and Asia Minor. At the end of the 18th / beginning of the 19th century, however, part of the A. migrated from Cherkessia to Russia. In 1839 they founded their own city (Armavir). The Circassian A. have adopted many linguistic and ethnographic elements from the Circassians. Later they were exposed to the linguistic and cultural influence of Russia. The main occupation of the Circassian A. was the trade.

At the end of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century, the A. also moved to other North Caucasian places (Grozny, Krasnodar, Stavropolʹ, Vladikavkaz and others). In 1989 there were 14,824 A. in Chechnya-Ingushetia, the majority of whom lived in Grozny. At the beginning of the 1990s, most A. left Chechnya for Stavropolʹ.

In the second half of the 19th century, many A. also settled in the cities on the Russian Black Sea coast and on the coast of the Sea of ​​Azov (Novorossiysk, Tuapse, Soči). Most came from western Armenia, which was won back by Turkey as a result of the Berlin Peace Congress (1878). In any case, the Russian authorities were interested in populating with the Armenian immigrants the areas that had been left almost deserted after the Caucasus War (1864) by the emigration of the Adygians, Ubyches and the Abasins to Turkey. In 1915/16 these areas experienced an onslaught of refugees from Turkey. Between 1926 and 1953 there was a national Armenian rayon in the Majkop district (later Krasnodar). In 1989 there were around 182,200 A.

Another chapter in the history of the A. in southern Russia is related to the colonization of the steppe in the Niederdon region. In 1778 18,407 Greeks and 12,598 Armenians from Crimea were brought to this area. The most important village with an Armenian population in the Niederdon region was Novyj Nahičevan (today part of Rostov). The local A.s have retained linguistic and ethnographic peculiarities to this day, which set them apart from the rest of the A.n in the Russian Federation.

In 1989 there lived in the North Caucasus (including the Rostov-on-Don region) 355,600 A. (out of a total of 532,400 A. in the Russian Federation). The majority (67%) inhabited cities. The number of A. in this part of Russia increased considerably after 1988 due to the Armenian immigrants from Azerbaijan, Central Asia and Georgia.

The first written evidence about A. in Moscow dates from 1390. Originally the A. lived in the western part of the city, Kitajgorod. Later they also moved to Bellyi Gorod. Many A. came to Moscow under Tsar Pëtr I. In 1989 about 44,000 A. lived in Moscow.

The A. were first mentioned in St. Petersburg in 1708. In the 1830s / 40s, Armenian traders owned 80% of the total volume of trade along the Astrakhan – St. Petersburg – Baltic States. In 1758 the Isachanov brothers founded one of Russia's first joint stock companies in St. Petersburg. Armenian industrial silk and cotton factories opened here in the middle of the 18th century. In 1989 there were about 12,100 A.

4.5 The Armenians in Ukraine

The first Armenian immigrant groups came to what is now Ukraine in the 9th to 11th centuries, initially from Crimea. An important Armenian community developed in Kiev from the middle of the 11th century. The Kievan A. moved away after the city was conquered by the Tatars (1240) and settled in other colonies in Ukraine and Russia (Lemberg, Kamʹʹjanecʹ-Podilʹsʹkyj, Lucʹk, Novgorod, Smolensk).

Another part of A., who emigrated from Asia Minor in the 9th to 11th centuries, settled in what is now western Ukraine (Galicia, Podolia and Volynia). After 1340, the Polish king Casimir III encouraged. A. and Jews to populate Galicia and Volynia, they received many economic privileges for this. The Armenian colonies in the Lithuanian-Polish area were founded on the basis of religious autonomy.

In the last two censuses in Ukraine, 54,200 (1989) and 99,900 (2001) A. were registered. The increase in numbers in Ukraine over the past ten years can be attributed to the waves of refugees from the Caucasus. According to the last census (2002), the number of A. in Poland was just under 1100. After 01.01.2004, however, around 1500 A. who were illegally on Polish soil received the right of residence. According to estimates, z. Currently about 5000-10,000 A. in Poland. There is an Armenian cultural association in Krakow (›Ormianskie Towarzystwo Kulturalne‹).

The A. settled in the Crimea in the 9th century. The first colonists came from Ani. Originally the A. lived in the cities of Caffa (ukrain. Feodosija), Surhat (ukrain. Staryj Krym), Akmečet, (ukrain. Simferopolʹ), Gezlev (ukrain. Jevpatorija), Karasubazar (ukrain. Belogorsk), Sugdeia (ukrain. Sudak ). The number of A. in the Crimea increased considerably after the fall of Cilicia in the 14th century. In the Crimea, the A. founded the cities of Kazarapat and Orabazar (ukrain. Armjansʹk). From the 14th to the 18th century, the A. formed the second largest ethnic group after the Tatars. The southeast of the peninsula was called Armenia Maritima for a long time. The religious center of the A. in the Crimea was Surhat. In the Armenian monasteries in the Crimea, manuscripts of special value were made, some of which enrich important collections of museums from all over the world. After the conquest of Crimea by the Turks (1475) and the establishment of the Crimean Khanate, most of the A. left the peninsula, with most of them emigrating to Poland-Lithuania, Russia and Moldova. From the second half of the 16th century new Armenian colonists came to the Crimea from Eastern Anatolia.

In 1778 the Russian government evacuated the entire Christian population, including the A., from the Crimea. After the annexation of the peninsula by the tsarist empire (1783), new groups of A.n came to the Crimea (from the southern regions of Russia and from western Turkey). The number of A. was v. a. big in Karasubazar, Staryj Krym and Feodosija. The Armenian community in Crimea was practically dissolved in 1944 when 11,000 people of Armenian origin were deported by the Soviet authorities. In 1989 there were only 2794 A left in the Crimea.

The center of A. in Galicia was Lviv. The A. settled here in the 13th century. In 1364 Lemberg became the religious center of the A. from Halyč, Kiev, Podolia, Volynia and the Vltava. The majority of the A. in Galicia consisted of artisans and traders. The A. from western Ukraine developed their own teaching system. With the help of the Jesuits, a language and literature seminar was founded by A. in Lemberg in the 17th century. In 1616 the first printing house of the Polish A. was put into operation. Since the second half of the 17th century, the idea of ​​a union with the Catholic Church gained more and more supporters among the western Ukrainian A.n. The close ties between the Polish A. and the Mechitarist monastery in Venice also contributed to this. Officially, the Armenian Uniate Church in Poland was established in 1689 when papal authority was finally accepted. After 1660, many Polish A. were attracted to the flourishing markets of Russia, Persia and the Ottoman Empire. The A. from Galicia managed to maintain their traditional legal and religious forms of self-government until the beginning of the 20th century. The Armenian community in Lviv was also very active in the interwar period when Galicia was part of Poland. In the 1970s, around 1500 A.

The first groups of A.n settled in Podolia at the beginning of the 13th century. In the 17th century, around 1200 families lived in Kamʹʹjanecʹ-Podilʹsʹkyj, which was more than half of the total population of the city. The colony of A. was dissolved in 1672 as a result of the occupation of the city by the Ottoman army. The majority of the local A. then emigrated to Galicia and Macedonia. Other places in Podolia with a considerable Armenian population were Jazlovec, Zoločeve, Kubačivcy, Dubrovice (Barok), Studenice, Bar, Umanʹ, Balta, Raškov, Berežany and Sataniv.

4.6 Romania, Hungary and the Republic of Moldova

In the Middle Ages, most of the A. were in the areas east and south of the Carpathian Mountains in Moldova, as they were active as traders along the so-called "Moldovan trade route". The A. in the Vltava are documented as early as the 14th century when they came from Podolia, the Crimea and from Halyč. The oral tradition of the Moldovan A. knows "seven cities", where they are said to have settled first. In any case, in the 15th century A. are recorded in Suceava, Siret, Chotyn, Botoşani, Dorohoi, Vaslui, Galaţi, Iaşi, Cetatea de Baltă and Roman. Confessionally, the Moldovan A. belonged to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Lemberg until the first quarter of the 17th century, after they had joined the Armenian Patriarchate in Constantinople. The Moldovan A. enjoyed religious freedom and extensive administrative rights for a long time. A.'s employment in Moldova was v. a. trade and craft. Some of the A. held important positions in the Moldovan political hierarchy. Prince Ioan Vodă cel Cumplit (1572–74) was of Armenian origin. The A. came to Wallachia a little later than to Moldova. The densest settlements were Bucharest, Piteşti and Craiova, most of which A. came from the Crimea. In the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century, v. a. the number of Bucharest A. to. The A. reached Transylvania in the 13th century at the latest. In response to the repression of the Moldovan prince Ştefan Rareş, part of the Moldovan A. came to Transylvania in the middle of the 16th century. Here they lived together with Germans, Hungarians and Romanians as well as in newly founded colonies (e.g. Gherla). Many Transylvanian A. converted to Catholicism and were assimilated by the Hungarians. Around 15,000 A. lived in Transylvania at the beginning of the 18th century. In the eastern districts of today's Republic of Moldova (Transnistria), the settlement of A. dates back to the late 18th century. In 1792, the city of Grigoriopol was founded in the Očakiv area. a. A. moved from the Principality of Moldova. In the following years A. from the Ottoman Empire also settled in Grigoriopol. At the beginning of the 19th century, around 4500 A. lived in Grigoriopol. Later the number of A. in this city steadily decreased, as many of them emigrated to Odessa and Chişinău.

The A. community in Chişinău grew rapidly after Bessarabia was annexed by Russia. In the middle of the 19th century, around 1000 Armenian families lived here. In the 19th century A.'s groups also settled in other cities in Bessarabia (Akkerman, Bălţi, Orhei, Hânceşti).

In 1930 there were 15,544 A in all of Romania. After the Second World War, however, the number of Romanian A. decreased, as many emigrated in the 50s / 60s. In 2002, 1780 A. (821 in Bucharest) were registered in Romania. In 1990 the "Union of A. in Romania" (UAR) was founded. The Armenian minority is represented in Romania's parliament. In 1989 the Republic of Moldova had 2873 A. 84.7% of them lived in an urban environment. The number of people of Armenian origin in Hungary is estimated at around 30,000.

4.7 Bulgaria

Armenian historians usually speak of an Armenian diaspora in Bulgaria as early as the 6th or 8th century. In the 9th century, the Byzantine authorities deported many A. to the Balkans. After the incorporation of Bulgaria into the Byzantine Empire (1018), a new wave of immigration took place, which reached the borders of the city of Plovdiv. This city later became the religious center of the A. in Bulgaria. New groups from A. (from Cilicia and the Crimea) came to Bulgaria in the course of the 13th to 14th centuries. After the occupation of Bulgaria by the Ottomans, many A. moved to Wallachia, Transylvania and Galicia. About 100 Armenian families lived in Plovdiv in the 17th century. The community of A. in Bulgaria grew with the refugees from Kamʹʹjanecʹ-Podilʹsʹkyj (after 1672). In the 17th to 19th centuries, other groups of A. from the Ottoman Empire and Persia settled in Bulgaria (Sofia, Tărnovo, Varna). After 1878 Bulgaria became the preferred destination for refugees from the Ottoman Empire.

The number of A. in Bulgaria has been decreasing since the 1930s. In 1933 and 1946 part of the Bulgarian A. returned to the USSR. Another group emigrated to the USA, Canada and Central Asia in the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1980s there were only about 25,000 A. (especially in Plovdiv, Sofia, Varna and Ruse) left in Bulgaria.

Beledian K. 1994: Les arméniens. Paris. Bricout B. 1984: Les arméniens au XXe siècle. Paris. Ghazarian V. (ed.) 1998: Armenians in the Ottoman Empire: an anthology of transformation, 13th – 19th centuries. Waltham, Mass. Hofmann T. 1993: The Armenians. Fate, culture, history. Nuremberg. Kasbarian-Grigorjan V.R. 1980: Istorija armjanskich kolonij Ukrainy i Pol’ši (armjane v Podolii). Erevan. Lang M., Christopher J. W. 1985: The Armenians. Oldenburg. Lussac G. 1999: Le génocide des arméniens. Research on the transmission et les ruptures de filiations. Thèse de doctorat. Paris. Novello A. A. 1986: The Armenians: Bridge between Occident and Orient. Stuttgart. Redgate A. E. 1998: The Armenians. Oxford. Ter-Sarkisjanc A. 1998: Armjane. Istorija i ětnokul’turnye tradicii. Moskva. Thomson R. W. 1994: Studies in Armenian literature and Christianity. Aldershot.

(Flavius ​​Solomon)