What causes a lupus flare

Predicting the risk of relapse in stable systemic lupus erythematosus

Inclusion criteria:

- The SLE diagnosis met the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinic's revision of the American College of Rheumatology's classification criteria for SLE

- disease stabilized ≥ 1 year


- Anti-double-stranded DNA negative by IF measurement and ≤ 200 IU / ml by ELISA method

- Complement 3 (C3) ≥ 0.5 * lower limit of the normal range and the variation in C3 is less than 10% within the last year

- 24 hours urine protein ≤ 0.5 g

- Prednisone (or equivalent) ≤ 7.5 mg / d for more than 6 months

- No use of immunosuppressants such as CsA, MMF, CTX, FK506, LEF, MTX in the last 6 months. However, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is acceptable and should be used

- Never use biological agents like rituximab, belimumab, epratuzumab, etc.

- No severe organ involvement in the past 2 years, including lupus encephalosis, diffused alveolar hemorrhage, thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura, rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis, severe thrombocytopenia, severe hemolytic anemia, myocardial involvement, myeleterosis, or severe peripheral neuropathy

Exclusion criteria:

- Active SLE

- Plan to become pregnant if you are pregnant or breastfeeding

- Are you planning or have you had an operation in the last 6 months?

- Current infection

- history of malignancy

- Severe organ dysfunction or other complications

- Can't follow up

- Inappropriate to be enrolled

- Psoriasis, porphyria, arrhythmia, or eye diseases that interfere with the use of HCQ