How can I stimulate in class

Design of the beginner's lessons after school entry

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2. Tasks of the first class

3. Accept and strengthen individuality

4. Social integration - experiences in a class community

5. Initial teaching that is conducive to learning: Open teaching forms
5.1 Daily / weekly plan work
5.2 Free work
5.3 Project work

6. Student observation

7. The classroom as a learning and living space

8. Rhythmization

9. Rules and rituals

10. Play and movement

11. Silence and relaxation

12. Working with parents

13. Homework

14. Summary

15. List of sources (including additional literature)
15.1 List of Figures
15.2 Bibliography

1 Introduction

The lessons after school enrollment are called initial lessons. There is no clear time limit for the duration of specific lessons for school newcomers. (cf. Speck-Hamdan 1993, p. 12) The different views in the scientific literature differ widely on this point, as a rule they start with the first week of school and end with the second year of school. I personally share the idea of ​​the latter, as the special orientation of this lesson must last longer than a few weeks in order to give all children sufficient opportunity to gradually get used to school and forms of learning and working. Only then can successful school attendance be guaranteed.

In this thesis I will deal with the pedagogical and didactic requirements of specifically designed lessons for school beginners. I already mentioned at the beginning how important a good start to school is for the child. The first time in school can have a lasting impact on the image of a child and set the course for lifelong views and attitudes. Since one is aware of the extent to which it is important when entering school, the design for the initial lessons represents a particular educational challenge for primary school teachers. When children come to school, they already have very specific expectations of the school, which then either confirmed or not. The school beginners' understanding of school is crucial for their experience, so the design of the initial lessons by the teacher should be considered and structured from the child's point of view.

"What is related to the beginning of school must be felt, planned and realized by the six-year-olds in order to give them an experience of school that not only changes their childhood through being a student, but also enriches and expands it." (Lichtenstein-Rother / Röbe 1987, p. 50)

The organization associated with taking on a first class must therefore begin in good time, as a child-friendly transition structure takes time and the concrete design of the framework conditions is already considered and decided in the old school year. (see Sanner 1999, p. 30)

After school enrollment, school and teaching activities are based on the individual learning requirements of the newcomers. The transition to the new area of ​​life is easier for children if the initial lessons include familiar manners and activities from the preschool area. In addition to such points of contact for a smooth transition, the hitherto unknown requirements that the school as an institution places on children are easier to cope with. (cf. von den Steinen 1996, p. 42f)

Since it is the task of the primary school to support all children in the best possible way, each individual starting school must be picked up with their individual starting point for learning where they are based on their personal learning and life experiences. In order to make this task possible, it makes sense that individualizing and differentiating learning processes are used. By opening up lessons, school beginners have the opportunity to work at a pace that suits them and to achieve their goals in different ways. (cf. Portmann 1995, p. 13) For the pedagogical design of the initial lesson, this means that the pupils should be offered a wide range of opportunities to experience their environment. It is also necessary that the child receive guidance within the community. In addition, the teacher must work with the legal guardian in a variety of ways.

2. Tasks of the first class

"Since not all children come to school with the same previous experience and the same learning requirements, the aim of the lessons during the first few weeks of school is to work in such a way that any development and learning differences can be adjusted [...]. Only then can school learning in the real sense begin, [...]. ”(Weigert / Weigert 1997, p. 50)

In order to ensure the goal of basic education for all, it is the task of the beginning lessons to do justice to the developmental differences of each individual child. For this purpose, the demands on the students should be properly matched to their individual physical, mental, emotional and social requirements. (cf. Baumann / Nickel 1997, p. 182) In order to be able to do justice to this at all, the children have to get to know a variety of learning and working forms. Planning the beginning of the lesson in advance requires sensitivity and sufficient time from the teacher. Only if the school and the teacher adapt pedagogically and organizationally to the different experiences, requirements and expectations of school beginners can it be possible to maintain the children's joy in learning, as they are not constantly over- or under-challenged.

Hacker writes that the first class today only contains a small part of the content-related tasks. (cf. Hacker 2001a, p. 398) Instead, he sees the promotion of learning competence and self-concept development, as well as the design of an appropriate transition from natural to school learning, taking into account the increasing developmental heterogeneity of children, as central tasks at the beginning of primary education . (see ibid.)

Knauf provides a more detailed and apt description of the specific tasks of the initial lesson. (cf. Knauf 1998, p. 73ff; Knauf 2001, p. 24ff) Since the task areas have been developed with regard to the current discussions, the introductory function in the school subjects is no longer the focus of the initial lessons. The acquisition of reading, writing and arithmetic form a basis for further learning and are therefore goals of the beginning lessons, but they are no longer the focus of the first school years. Rather, the school newcomers should be strengthened and encouraged on different levels, because then they are better able to deal with situations of all kinds in their lives and to cope with them.

"With regard to the diversity of children, initial lessons must stimulate, secure, support and promote development processes on several levels." (Knauf 2001, p. 24)

The safeguarding and promotion concern the five levels of (1) ego competence, (2) social-emotional competence, (3) communicative competence, (4) planning and action competence and (5) professional competence.

On the first level, which is supposed to strengthen self-esteem, school beginners must be given recognition and confirmation of their learning and performance behavior. In order to help the children to accept their own personality and individual abilities at the same time, the lessons should offer opportunities for self-determination, self-testing and self-control. If the responsible behavior is supplemented by feedback from the teacher and also by other children, the child learns a realistic assessment of himself in the first class. The level of social-emotional competence develops the experience of a class community and the creation of emotional ties to classmates. The more responsibility children are given for their own social actions, the better they can understand and comply with rules. By promoting the communicative level, the children should be taught numerous different forms of expression and communication. Diverse possibilities of expression make it easier for the students in their future worlds to react appropriately linguistically in a wide variety of situations. At the level of planning and action competence, the pupils should learn to work in a goal-oriented manner right from the start of their school days. The last level formulates the task of stimulating professional competence. Children should not only receive knowledge, but rather they should actively deal with life and the meaning of learning. (see ibid., p. 24ff)

A concrete implementation of such tasks and the associated goals can only be achieved if school beginners are offered child-friendly, socially integrative, differentiated lessons. Many factors are important in order to design the initial lessons in a beneficial way with regard to the competencies mentioned by Knauf. I will now deal with some of the important ones in the following.

3. Accept and strengthen individuality

Every starter of school is a unique personality. Right from the first contact before starting school, the school and teachers must convey to every child that it is important to them that they take it seriously and that they are happy that it will soon be part of their school.

The design of the first day of school and the first school years can be designed in such a way that each individual is given the feeling of being personally welcome at the school. (cf. Knörzer / Grass 2000, p. 263f) Instead of empty, toneless greetings or farewells, the class teacher can perhaps better greet or say goodbye to one or the other child individually or ask them a question about their personal well-being. It is important that the teacher actually feels the joy he is expressing, because the young schoolchildren are sensitive to false expressions of feeling and facades.

"When children come to school, it is important that they are accepted in their individuality and are given opportunities to discover their own learning type, develop their own learning style and work at their own learning pace." (Knauf 2001, p. 32)

In addition, the processes of learning in the first class must be particularly challenged and supported. The elementary school as a place of life and learning, which was previously unknown to the newcomers, should offer forms of learning from the start that take the child seriously as the subject of his or her life and learning and strengthen it in the learning process. (cf. Cwik / Risters 2004, p. 16) Only if the children really feel that their personality is accepted can positive attitudes towards learning develop.

4. Social integration - experiences in a class community

"The task is to create a social climate that is not shaped by coexistence and opposition, but by togetherness, and which enables every child to integrate." (Schorch 1998, p. 100)

First of all, I would like to take a look at the typical characteristics of the social situation of school beginners at the beginning of school and then mention possibilities for supporting integration into the class community in the initial lessons.

With the start of everyday school life, school newcomers have many new social experiences. The children meet their classmates, older students, the principal and the caretaker; all of these people make up the School community. In order to be able to belong to the group of school children, the young pupils must be accepted by the older school children. Sponsorships of older students (mostly fourth graders) with the first graders have proven useful in many cases for settling in. Thanks to their sponsor, a school starter can usually make social contacts with people outside of the class more quickly in the playground. This makes it easier for the young schoolchild to see himself as a 'pupil of the school'. (see Herbert 1981, p. 156)

As the experience within the Class community At the beginning of my school days, if more importance is attached than the experiences in the school community, I will continue to deal with those in the class. After starting school, a first class is not a community from the start. Rather, the new learning group consists of children with very different experiences, interests and characters, whose feeling of togetherness only develops in the course of learning and living together. (cf. Jahn / Wölk 1999, p. 15) The children did not choose their classmates, but were assigned to them by someone else. In general, when establishing a class, a primary school ensures, if possible, that there are about half girls and half boys in the group. In addition, one tries to put together a class in such a way that as many school beginners as possible already know one or the other child from kindergarten or the local area. Some children are given a feeling of security by familiar or familiar people, while others are very eager for new social contacts and friendly relationships. (cf. Hanke 2002, p. 43) Hans Petillon carried out a study in 1993 in which he asked school beginners about their social experiences. He conducted this survey after six weeks of school and at the end of the first and the end of the second school year. One result of the survey is that group structures develop and consolidate during the first year of school. (cf. Faust-Siehl 1999a, p. 62) In terms of social “ranking”, good school performance in grades one and two usually affects popularity, while poor performance makes many children in class an outsider. Petillon's research primarily highlights the importance of social relationships and friendships with classmates at the beginning of school.

“Finding a girlfriend or boyfriend can be more meaningful to children than what is taught in school; To be included in the group is often more important to them than the lesson and it gives them security - prerequisites for them to like and want to learn. "(Schwarz 1994, p. 14)

The relationship with their classmates is not only more important to school beginners than school and lessons, social contact with the other children also means much more to them during this time than the experiences with the class teacher. (see ibid.)

Since positive social experiences are in most cases related to the learning and performance abilities of a newcomer to school, the class teacher in particular has to consider how he can support the social discovery and learning processes in the initial lesson. When children come to school, they first learn to find their way around the new 'school class' social situation. As a primary school teacher, when you take on a first grade, you shouldn't assume that the children will automatically grow together into a community over time. Rather, the design of the initial lesson must offer targeted units that make it easier for the pupils to get to know each other and to feel comfortable in the social structure of the class. For this are z. B. to initiate many exercises of partner work, because in this way the bank neighbor is experienced and understood not only as a neighbor, but as a partner. In addition to partner work, getting to know the table group can also be promoted through targeted group work. In order to support the class in growing together as a community, conscious situations of togetherness must be staged in the lesson in the introductory phase. Possibilities can be, for example, an open beginning with a discussion group, a joint breakfast, a joint closing group, etc. (see Jahn / Wölk 1999, p. 17)

A successful design of the lesson can eliminate the competitive situation at the beginning of school. Since the roles in the social structure of a school class emerge and solidify very quickly, it is the task of the teacher to try to impart social skills such as tolerance and sensitivity towards others in the first few weeks of class. In order to achieve this, the lessons must challenge the school beginners to expand their social skills, i.e. the teacher must put learning forms such as conversation, consideration, cooperation and giving help among each other in the foreground when planning the lessons. (cf. Schwarz 1994, p. 14f)

An introduction to the social forms of teaching in the first school years can even become the topic of the first lessons, because behaviors such as learning together and

-working, mutual understanding and helping as well as joint planning and decision-making must first be learned in the initial lessons. (see Röbe 1999, p. 74)

Supporting the children in the new social situation by structuring the initial lesson accordingly requires professional and regular observation and interpretation of the social life of the pupils by the teacher. (cf. Hanke 2002, p. 46) Because in order to challenge the children in a meaningful way in processes of social learning, the teacher must have knowledge of the distribution of roles, friendships, conflicts, etc.feature among the children in the class. The previously mentioned study by Petillon showed, however, that teachers are rarely really informed about the social life of their students, although the necessary observations are made in many different situations (e.g. during free work, in group discussions and during breaks ) possible are. (see ibid.)

5. Initial teaching that is conducive to learning: Open teaching forms

Open (initial) teaching is an attempt to combine certain demands that have existed since reform pedagogy in the early 1970s with the current situation of school-based learning. However, the much discussed alternative of open teaching is still not subject to a uniform definition or a precisely defined concept. (cf. Kasper 1993, p. 191f) The resolutions of the conferences of ministers of education in 1970 and 1994 call on teachers to teach more openly or more freely. Since then, these forms of teaching have slowly gained acceptance, and many teachers are now enthusiastic about open teaching.

“Openness means giving children freedom within the school life and learning field, without which they could not learn and so that they learn to independently expand the limits of their ability and knowledge. But also openness so that they learn to adhere to the limits set by rules that they encounter in their activities. "(Schwarz 1994, p. 13)

The focus of the open lessons is the individuality of the student, because reform pedagogical approaches (e.g. Montessori, Freinet, Key) require "thinking from the child". (cf. Wallrabenstein 1994, p. 12) An opening of the lessons can offer all children the personally necessary development opportunities and at the same time situations of common learning. Schoolchildren can learn in the very beginning of the lesson to decide for themselves about work equipment, content, methods and social forms. In addition, every child can develop their own ideas, creativity and independence in certain work phases. Through the possible division of the individual learning time for each individual student, the children can achieve a very high learning success.

The more self-determination and co-determination rights the teacher gives his students, the more open the design of the lesson. However, more openness does not mean better quality at the same time. (cf. Hegele 1997, p. 192) Taking into account the different abilities of children enables self-directed learning during the first and second year of school. Children should be introduced to self-directed learning step by step and since every class is different, the different degrees of open teaching must be used and accepted depending on the particularities of the class.

In order to realize the design of open lessons, certain conditions and requirements must be met. (cf. Nicolas 1997, p. 22f) The teacher takes on a different role because he no longer leads the lessons directly, but leads them indirectly. He helps the school beginners and gives them advice and other suggestions from the background. When designing the classroom, it makes sense to provide students with opportunities to answer questions that arise. Since the classroom is also the learning environment for primary school students, it makes sense if the room encourages learning through discovery. The children in the first class must be familiar with various social forms such as partner and group work, be able to follow important rules and be familiar with working and learning techniques.

The opening of the lessons proves, especially considering the aspect of changed childhood, as a suitable starting point to react appropriately to the immense changes in the socialization of school beginners. Open initial lessons also play a major role in connection with heterogeneous learning groups. Such an opening does justice to the current conditions in a special way and can be realized on different levels. I will not go into all levels here, but only deal with the teaching itself, which can be structured in an open manner in terms of content and methodology and organization. In the open design of the lessons in the introductory phase, z. For example, the following special forms of teaching are conceivable: Free work, daily and weekly schedule work, project teaching and workshop teaching, as further fixed components are generally the circle of chairs, the classroom, the work equipment and school life. (cf. Wallrabenstein 1994, p. 92f) In addition, subject-oriented work blocks should be set up during the planning, the contents of which each student can deal with individually. (cf. Hinz / Sommerfeld 2004, p. 182) Then I will go into more detail on the open teaching forms of weekly plan work, free work and project teaching.

An open teaching concept can be the right answer to the developmental differences of today's school starters. With a well thought-out planning and implementation, the lessons in the beginning classes do justice to the diverse requirements and preferences of a heterogeneous class in which several different thought structures are represented and different learning times, learning locations, learning methods and social forms are preferred. (cf. Hanke 2002, p. 91) Children are already in the first and second year of school able to learn independently, they learn to set appropriate goals for themselves and to assess their abilities. At this point I would like to emphasize that open forms of teaching can never be equated with arbitrariness, because there are clear structures and agreements when living and learning together. The design of a child-friendly initial lesson must introduce the school beginners to the self-responsible forms of open lessons, because only an introduction in the interests of the child makes individual and at the same time targeted learning possible. (see Weitz / Ziesmer 1998, p.5)

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